Dedicated to the advancement of the practice of education through research and scholarship.

Educational Research Quarterly
Olatunde Ogunyemi, Editor
PO Box 571
Grambling, LA 71245

Phone: 318-235-3927

ERQ 47.4 June 2024

Parental Views on Character Education Being Implemented in USA Elementary Schools

Nermin Kasapoglu Kaya Yavuz Erisen
Yildiz Technical University

The present study focused on exploring the views of parents regarding character education programs implemented in elementary schools in the USA. The sample comprised of parents in Florida, as it is one of the states where character education is mandatory. Florida's implementation of compulsory character education is particularly significant given its unique socio-cultural structure and population dynamics. Also as one of the most populous states in the USA with a diverse and evolving social structure, Florida's emphasis on character education is noteworthy. While there is existing research on teachers' perspectives, there is a lack of sufficient research on parents' beliefs in this regard. Recognizing the significance of parents' views and roles in shaping children's character development, this study investigated parental perspectives on various aspects of character education programs, including goals, content, teaching-learning processes, and evaluation. The research methodology employed in this study is qualitative, utilizing semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 parents. The findings provide insights into parents’ views on goals, content, teaching-learning and evaluation processes of the character education programs. Parents in the study showcased a strong grasp of character education, emphasizing its importance, expressing satisfaction with schools addressing discrimination and highlighting the relevance of teaching foundational values, addressing negative behaviors, and praising the positive impact of character education programs, especially during challenging times like the pandemic.

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Assessing Student Analytical and Graphical Skills in Introductory Economics as a Tool of Early Intervention System

Chukwudi Ikwueze
Queensborough Community College

The U.S. Department of Education advocates strongly using assessment of student learning as a means of maintaining high standards of education. Instructors use mostly multiple choice and discussion questions as assessment tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple-choice and discussion questions and participant variables in assessing student analytical and graphical skills. Additionally, the aim was to explore the potential utilization of these assessment outcomes within an early intervention system. The instructor conducted three examinations, consisting multiple-choice and discussion questions, covering seven chapters in two introductory economics classes. Approximately 244 student examination artifacts were collected, and categorized based on scores on multiple-choice analytical, multiple-choice graphical, discussion analytical, and discussion graphical questions. Additionally, a survey was administered to collect information on challenges that students faced and participant variables of grade point average (GPA), race, and motivation. The instructor also attended workshops on growth, purpose, and sense of belonging (GPS) mindset; Bloom’s taxonomy and writing intensive that were integral elements of the early intervention system. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square, and analysis of covariance tests were used. The results indicate that struggling students had a mean GPA of 2.44 or below, implying that the GPA helped identify struggling students. The GPS mindset helped identify key challenges that individual students faced, Bloom’s taxonomy aided in clarifying assignment questions and comprehension, and writing intensive assignments helped improve performance on discussion questions. The early intervention system reduced failure rates by half, indicating that the integration of these four elements improved learning outcomes for struggling students.

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ERQ 47.3 March 2024

A Mixed Methods Analysis of a Novel Mathematics Lesson Using Student-made Manipulative Materials in the Geometry Classroom

Lester A. C. Archer

Western Kentucky U

This study was an investigation of the use of manipulative materials in the mathematics classroom. The researcher guided students to create paper triangles, which were then used as a manipulative to calculate the sum of the interior angles of a triangle. On pre- and post-measures of quantitative data, although the data indicated a positive correlation on attitudes toward math, there was no statistical difference on an 11-item assessment composed of public-released questions taken from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) exam. Mixed methods data collection and analysis found that students enjoyed the lesson and wanted more opportunities to engage with manipulative materials. Implications include the need for mathematics teachers to deploy novel approaches as instructional strategies.

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Examining the Effects of the 'Look, Ask, Pick' Strategy in Enhancing Fraction Skills Among Struggling Secondary Students: A Replication and Extension Study

Matthias Grünke Anne Barwasser
University of Cologne

The present study aimed to examine the effect of collaborative practices among teachers on student achievement in state-tested science courses. Using an action research model, the author planned, implemented, and evaluated the effect of teachers collaborating in PLCs in science classes in a rural school district. Prior to the study, teachers in the district reported that they had never had the opportunity to collaborate with other teachers at different schools in the district. The school and district leaders had previously made attempts to form PLCs, but they were unsuccessful in their efforts. The district coordinator used vertical and horizontal alignment meetings throughout the school year to support the teachers' needs. Findings of the research show there was a 14% increase in students testing on the proficient and distinguished levels on the End of Course Assessment in 8th grade science, an 11% increase in Biology, and a 3% increase in 5th grade science after less than one year of the collaborative practices.

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ERQ 47.2 December 2023

An Investigation into Business Education Classroom Pedagogies

Jonathan Walker

Saint Louis Community College

Randal H. Wilson
Sean Simons
Kemaly Parr

Murray State University

Charlene Atkins

University of Central Missouri

This study investigated the classroom instructional strategies used by business education teachers in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the signature pedagogies used by business education teachers in their programs and to what extent does specific demographics impact business education teachers’ use of classroom instructional strategies. The study was designed using ex-post facto data collected and analyzed from business education teachers through an internet survey and analyzed. The data revealed the signature pedagogies of business education are interactive lecture, guided practice, and project-based learning. The survey results indicated that teacher demographics had an impact on the classroom instructional strategies they used.

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Using Action Research to Examine the Effect of Collaborative Practices Among Science Teachers on Student Achievement on State-Tested Science Courses

Latasha R. Lampkin

Georgia State University

The present study aimed to examine the effect of collaborative practices among teachers on student achievement in state-tested science courses. Using an action research model, the author planned, implemented, and evaluated the effect of teachers collaborating in PLCs in science classes in a rural school district. Prior to the study, teachers in the district reported that they had never had the opportunity to collaborate with other teachers at different schools in the district. The school and district leaders had previously made attempts to form PLCs, but they were unsuccessful in their efforts. The district coordinator used vertical and horizontal alignment meetings throughout the school year to support the teachers' needs. Findings of the research show there was a 14% increase in students testing on the proficient and distinguished levels on the End of Course Assessment in 8th grade science, an 11% increase in Biology, and a 3% increase in 5th grade science after less than one year of the collaborative practices.

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ERQ 47.1 September 2023

Teacher Affection and Immediacy in College Classrooms: Predicting Student Engagement

Caroline Waldbuesser Lisa J. van Raalte
Sam Houston State University

The current study sought to compare the predictive value of teacher immediacy and teacher affection on student engagement. In the study, 224 undergraduate students at a U.S. Southwestern university responded to an online questionnaire about a current in-person class they were attending. Both teacher immediacy and teacher affection positively predicted student engagement, and teacher affection was a stronger predictor. Discriminant validity tests are needed to clearly assess the value of teacher affection as it compares to teacher immediacy. It is suggested that teachers who promote affection through classroom bonding activities may elicit feelings of compassion and care for students which in turn can promote students’ feelings of connectedness to the classroom, institution, and each other.

Investigating the Experiences of Gifted Students in Learning Algebraic Expressions through GeoGebra

Oğuzhan Alıkçı Duygu Özdemir
Istanbul Aydin University

With the increase in the development of science and technology, contemporary technological requirements are seen as rising needs of the countries. In this regard, technology can be considered both a means and an end to reach science. Since gifted students are more prone to computer technologies due to their cognitive structures, instructional technologies may have a significant role in the realization of more effective and advanced learning for gifted students in the field where they are gifted. At that point, GeoGebra is a program that has a useful, and understandable interface often used in educational research. In the literature, it has been seen that the number of studies on the application of the Algebra subject of the GeoGebra program and the teaching of the sub-titles of this subject to gifted students is less, compared to the teaching of geometry and measurement learning field, and the researches on the gifted student group are limited. For this reason, the present study aimed to investigate the experiences of gifted students regarding the instructive role of GeoGebra activities developed for algebra learning. The participants of the study were nine gifted 6th-grade students attending a foundation university’s Children's University. Data about the experiences of gifted students were collected with the help of in-class observations made by the researcher during the activities, worksheets of the students applied at the end of the applications, student opinion forms, and one-to-one semi-structured interviews with students. All the collected qualitative data was brought together and the data has been analyzed with the descriptive data analysis method. The findings obtained from the categories consisting of the codes used in the qualitative data analysis process are interpreted and the experiences of gifted students on the teaching process of algebraic expressions through GeoGebra are presented under two separate themes as ‘Inferences on the Learning of Algebraic Expressions’ and ‘Inferences from the Student Perspective on Learning Algebraic Expressions Through GeoGebra’.

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ERQ 46.4 June 2023

Opinions of Parents on the Use of Technology for Their Children During the Covid-19

Providing all students with equitable treatment and access has been a cornerstone of mathematics education reform (Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, 2015; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2014). Studies in mathematics classrooms show that using hands-on and interactive materials (i.e., “manipulatives

Tuğçe Akyol
Afyon Kocatepe University

This study aimed to examine the views of parents of young children on their children’s use of technology during COVID-19. The participants of this research, in which a case study was used, consisted of 10 mothers and 10 fathers living in a province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. The interview form prepared by the researcher was used as a data collection tool. The data obtained from this research were analyzed using content analysis. The research data were gathered under the following four themes: family guidance, technology use in the family, effects on the development of the child, and technology education. The findings showed that parents had positive opinions about the use of technological tools and technology education during COVID-19. In addition, it was concluded that parents needed support on how to guide their children in this process. It was determined that while some parents tried to be positive models for their children, they showed different approaches with their spouses. To them, technology affected their children’s behavior and attention/interest levels negatively.

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The Relationship Between Teacher Candidates’ GPA and Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

Eric Batts Teresa Clark
Cindy Clemson Landon Clark
Murray State University

Educators rely on teamwork skills to productively contribute to professional responsibilities such as curriculum committees, professional learning communities (PLCs), co-teaching, and individualized education plan (IEP) teams. This quantitative study was designed to assess teacher candidates’ knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) related to teamwork. The instrument used in this study, Teamwork-KSA, measures an individual’s KSAs in specific teamwork characteristics, and researchers looked for differences between teacher candidates’ progression through an educator preparation provider (EPP) and Teamwork-KSA results. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Pearson’s correlation, resulting in the finding that a relationship exists between GPA and Teamwork-KSAs. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between GPA and the following teamwork characteristics measured by Teamwork-KSA: goal-setting and performance management, planning and task coordination, and self-management.

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Burnout Among Rural Public-School Counselors

Jerry L. Dooley

This study analyzed the risk of burnout for school counselors in rural Appalachia by surveying school counselors in West Virginia. The specific research questions delved into the areas that may predict a higher risk of burnout. These areas were clinical supervision, self-care engagement, levels of education, experience, caseloads, intensity of cases, and peer relationships. Utilizing a quantitative, predictive research design, the researcher asked participants in West Virginia to complete the Professional Quality of Life, version 5 and the Self-Care Assessment for Psychologists instruments as well as a demographic questionnaire to see if those areas could impact the potential risk of burnout. The findings provide concrete answers to these areas and school counselor burnout and implications for addressing these areas. Administrators who were not former school counselors will see how a school counselor’s need for clinical supervision can impact the potential for burnout.


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ERQ 46.3 March 2023

Analyzing Unexpected Data After a Novel Mathematics Lesson Using the Critical Friend Process

Stephen F. Bismarck Sherri K. Prosser
U of South Carolina Upstate Austin Peay State U

Providing all students with equitable treatment and access has been a cornerstone of mathematics education reform (Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, 2015; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2014). Studies in mathematics classrooms show that using hands-on and interactive materials (i.e., “manipulatives”) support students’ conceptual understanding (Carbonneau et al., 2013), even for those who have learning difficulties and disabilities (Jitendra et al., 2017; Marita & Hord, 2017). Unfortunately, instructional approaches that incorporate manipulatives have not been implemented on a regular basis in high school mathematics classrooms (Swan & Marshall, 2010), likely due to the misconceptions of the effectiveness of manipulatives with older students (Carbonneau et al., 2013) and teachers' belief that manipulatives can be distracting (Corkin et al., 2019). The concrete-representation-abstract instructional approach, which involves the use of manipulatives, provides a promising instructional method for use in high school mathematics classrooms.

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Early Intervention for Kindergarten-Aged Students: Providing an Academic Advantage to Promote Reading Growth

Stephanie D. Sullivan Christina E. Grant Samir Patel
Murray State University

Achievement gaps in learning can be identified as early as entry into kindergarten. This longitudinal study explored reading outcomes of 60 students over the course of five years to determine the impact of an additional year of school prior to kindergarten. The program was created to provide alternative options for students who attended preschool but still required an additional year of maturation and cognitive development to promote school readiness. Students that participated in the early intervention program were compared with students that advanced through the traditional progression of preschool through Grade 3. Academic growth was measured using school entry scores in kindergarten with scores at the end of Grade 3. Although the early intervention group entered school at a lower achievement level, results indicated the early intervention group demonstrated greater growth at Grade 3.

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Parental Educational Satisfaction and Academic Success

E.Nihal Lindberg
Kastamonu University

This study aimed to examine the effects of parents’ home and school-based involvement, parental satisfaction with their own school experience and their teens’ academic success, the frequency of communication from school; participants’ and their teens’ gender; parents’ educational status; and family income on the academic success of adolescents. A total of 349 parents having different socioeconomic and educational backgrounds participated in the study. In the hypothetical model, the frequency of communication from the school, parents’ educational status, family income, and parental satisfaction with their teen’s academic success is taken as exogenous variables, while academic performance is taken as an endogenous variable as its assumed causes are clearly displayed in the model. The results showed that parental satisfaction with their teen’s academic success is the most significant variable for predicting the academic success of adolescents. Besides, home-based involvement mediates the effects of the variables of parents’ educational status and of their satisfaction with the teen’s academic performance on the academic performance itself. In conclusion, parental satisfaction with the adolescent’s academic success is important for its impact on parent-teen interaction and for the possibility of creating an environment that would support the adolescents’ academic performance and education in general.

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Evaluation of a project using a ‘School-based Index’ to improve decision making and Student Learning

Sally Knipe

Christine Bottrell
Charles Darwin University REDThreads R&D

The technological capacity that now exists to gather and store large amounts of data has improved access to information related to the academic performance, demographic profile and welfare needs of young people in a school. Improvements in data management techniques, statistical data analysis and software packages have made retrieving and analyzing systems data a more accessible and manageable process. This situation has provided greater opportunities for researchers, school leaders and educators to understand factors affecting the academic achievement and welfare needs of students in the school. In many countries, examining school data has become an education policy priority and is seen as a way to improve academic outcomes in student learning. However, despite the excessive amount of data available, many school principals and teachers can struggle to use data to identify students requiring additional academic assistance. This article describes the development and application of a School-based Index Analysis (SIA) implemented twice over a seven-year period in a large regional school, and the associated collaborations between researchers and school personnel. Data included in the index consists of enrolment data, as well as internal school administrative and academic data. Student data is a source representing the characteristics of the school community that can provide evidence to inform school-based decisions regarding student support programs, welfare needs, teaching and learning requirements and the targeting of resources.

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ERQ 46.2 December 2022

Number Line or Counters? What Do In-And Pre-service Middle School Mathematics Teachers Suggest?

Emrullah ERDEM
Adiyaman University

The present study aimed to examine the opinions of in-and pre-service middle school mathematics teachers about teaching four operations with integers through “number line” and/or “counters”. Participants were 42 middle school mathematics teachers and 51 pre-service mathematics teachers. The data were collected through open-ended interview questions. In data analysis, a content analysis technique was used. The results suggested that the number line was easier and more understandable and that the ‘zero pair’ contributed to conceptual understanding. It was also found that the use of these models in different operations with integers was due to different reasons. The recommendation of using traditional methods (eg memorization of rules) took its place in the study as another interesting result.

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Remote Learning and Parent Depression During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Nicholas Lassi
Guanghua Law School

This study examined the link between remote learning for children and parent depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an intense shift in how education was delivered during the COVID-19 outbreak, increasing educational obligations for parents. In this study, two education delivery methods, “any remote learning for the household children” and “any in-person classes, at school, for the household children,” were examined by six measures of parent depression. The NLSY97 COVID-19 Supplement, collected in the first half of 2021, provided the 1,742-person sample. Remote learning for children was closely linked to parents experiencing increased depression, sadness, lack of focus, feeling that everything is an effort, not able to get “going,” and restless sleep. In-person classes, in school, and during the same time, were not linked to higher levels of these parental mental health issues. All tests controlled for general health, whether respondents had been told they had coronavirus, frequency of close contact at work, etc. These results strongly indicate that remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic is closely linked to increased parent depression. Providing mental health services for parents during extended periods of large-scale remote learning, particularly during pandemics, should be a priority.

ERQ 46.1 September 2022

Investigation of Preservice EFL Teacher’s Digital Literary Levels and Digital Literacy Skills

Gülşah Tikiz Ertürk
Amasya University, School of Foreign Languages

There has been extensive amount of research in terms of digital literacy and digital literacy education since the notion of embracing digital literacies in teaching contexts to reach the objectives has been highly emphasized within the 21st century teaching contexts. However, a considerable amount of research has been conducted for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. This study aims to investigate digital literacy levels of pre-service EFL teachers and also investigates if there are any significant differences of the participants’ critical digital literacies in relation to their gender, grade, age, the amount of time they spend online, their beliefs concerning how competent they are while they are using digital technologies and their preferences about reading online or print materials. The study also aims to explore the possible relationships among their subskills: technological skill, personal security skill, critical skill, device security skill, informational skill, and communication skill. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. The results indicated that the general digital literacy levels of the participants were moderately high (x̄=3.75). Considering the changes with regard to their demographics, the study showed that their digital literacy levels revealed a significant difference in relation to their gender, grade, and the information they had using digital platforms. However, their digital literacy level did not show a significant difference with regard to the amount of time spent online and their preferences about reading online or print materials. Finally, considering the relationships among their sub-skills also revealed some positive or negative oriented significant relationships. Particularly with the occurrence of the pandemic disease COVID-19, many institutions all around the world have had to reorganize their programs and curricular activities in accordance with distance education to suit all practices to the learners’ needs and this dictated an urgent need for the development of the digital skills of teachers to make a smooth transition. Investigating digital literacy levels and literacy skills of EFL pre-service teachers will enlighten educators

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Systematic Assessment of Learning in Higher Education: A Comprehensive Approach Within Curriculum Design

Amie A. Manis Lisa W. McKenna Stacy Sculthorp
Adler University Liberty University Strategic Education Incorporated

promoting student competency development and demonstrating institutional effectiveness.  As faculty have a key role in these efforts, it is important that they are equipped with adequate tools and support.  A backward design model with embedded assessments aligned to industry standards is an approach that provides a clear process for faculty to design courses that engage students through formative and summative assessments with personalized feedback.   Further, real-time analyses are possible via technology-enabled learning platforms which yields data to support the faculty-student dyad in the learning process.  It also positions assessment specialists, administrators, and faculty to drive and systematically assess the impact of data-informed quality improvements to curricula. Administrative and institutional support is essential to establishing and sustaining a mature culture of assessment in which the relationships among teaching, learning, and assessment are recognized.

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Perceived Self-Efficacy and Teacher Education Programs: Pre and Post-Program Measures

Joe D. Nichols
Purdue University Fort Wayne

The purpose of this project was to examine the results of a pre and post-program assessment of secondary teacher education candidates’ perceived self-efficacy to teach at their entry into (pre-assessment) and at the conclusion of their teacher education program (post-assessment).  The participants for this project were 200 secondary school pre-service teaching candidates at a mid-sized urban university in the Midwest in the fall of 2016 through the spring 2020.  Significant correlations were found among several of the identified key components of self-efficacy and several significant gains were seen in participant responses in perceived teaching self-efficacy when pre and post-program questionnaire data were compared.  Implications for teacher education preparatory programs and new teacher perceived self-efficacy are discussed.



ERQ 45.4 June 2022

The Alabama Equity Divide: Environmental Poverty and Achievement Across Urban and Rural Locales

Andrew Pendola

Hyunsung Jang
Teanna Moore Joy Rushing
John Appiah

Nicole Guilford
William Billinglsey Adefunke Dadematthews
NeCall Wilson Colleen McCambridge
Auburn University

Given its status as one of the highest-poverty, lowest-performing states in the nation, this article examines the ways in which dimensions of neighborhood poverty may impact student achievement in Alabama over and above student characteristics. We employ a unique longitudinal dataset that combines eight years of district-level student achievement with indicators of community poverty, including family composition, community education, local unemployment, food security, and generational poverty, to explore how these neighborhood factors associate with achievement between rural, suburban, and urban districts. Utilizing fixed effect regression models, results suggest that community poverty impacts student achievement but differs across spatial geographies. Results indicate that Alabama communities with low levels of financial poverty, unemployment, and single parent households and those with high levels of college degreed adults have above average student achievement scores. Alabama school districts situated in areas of persistent/generational poverty and food deserts are associated with below average student achievement. Results further imply that poverty is multifaceted and contextual, suggesting the need for schools and communities to address resource inequality through its various expressions rather than as a singular, generalized factor in student outcomes.

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Classroom Teachers’ Opinions About Peer Learning and Characteristics of Qualified Teachers

Ayşegül Çabuk Aksop Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
Duygu Özdemir İstanbul Aydın University

The present qualitative research study, designed with a phenomenology approach, aimed to examine classroom teachers’ opinions about peer learning and the characteristics of qualified teachers. Data were gathered from 7 classroom teachers working in Ankara, Turkey, utilizing semi-structured interviews. Based on the content analysis, it was found that teachers had positive approaches to peer learning processes that entail a positive organizational climate, tools for helping each other and handling similar problems, and an effective learning environment. The need for extra effort and conflict are seen as negative effects of this process and “qualified teachers” are seen as having professional skills such as expertise, certifications, and the ability to launch and support new developments, and personal skills including good communication, respect, and creativity.

ERQ 45.3 March 2022

Locus of control, Peer Social Support and School Adjustment among Freshmen in a Nigerian University

Tunde Dayo Oke

Nasarawa State University

Oyaziwo Aluede

Ambrose Alli University

This study examined peer social support, locus of control as determinants of school adjustment among freshmen in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria. The study adopted Ex post facto as research design. The sample comprised 600 participants randomly selected from all the schools/faculties (as used in Nigeria). A total of 75 students were each randomly selected from each of the eight schools/faculties (as used in Nigeria) of the university. Three research instruments were used to collect data for the study, these are: the student adjustment to university questionnaire by Baker and Siryk (2004), the locus of control scale by Hunttley, Palmer and Wakeling (2011), and the peer support scale by Kamalevva (2006). The results revealed that peer social support (emotional, instrumental, informational and appraisal supports) predicted school adjustment. Also, internal locus of control positively predicted school adjustment of university freshmen; in contrast to external locus of control. Significant difference exists in school adjustment of students with internal and external locus of control. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Nigerian universities should organize social forums that will afford fresh students opportunities to interact and receive support from their peers, as well enhancing their internal locus of control.

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Improving Reading Fluency in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Sean Simons

Nicole Hendrix

Murray State University

Marcus Autism Center

Bethany Hansen

Andresa De Souza

Munroe-Meyer Institute

University of Missouri

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at greater risk for reading difficulties, and for many children, the promotion of reading fluency is an appropriate intervention goal. However, few studies have specifically examined the use of repeated reading (RR) with young children with ASD. The present study used a RR intervention in conjunction with rewards contingent on performance and error correction with three young children with ASD to promote reading fluency on first and second grade level reading passages. Findings from this sample support other pilot studies extending variations of RR to use with children with ASD. Future work should rigorously evaluate the components of fluency interventions that promote short and long-term reading outcomes in children with ASD.

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A Measure of Early Childhood Educators’ Teaching Styles

Julia T. Atiles
East Tennessee State University

Hua Lin
Oklahoma State University

Jara Buffington
Will Rogers Elementary

Robert E. Larzelere
Oklahoma State University

Assessing teaching styles with a valid and reliable instrument would assist in the measurement of an important variable that affects children’s socio-emotional and cognitive development. Evaluation of teaching style in the early childhood classroom is difficult, as collecting data from the early childhood classroom often lies in the reliance on second-party reports (typically students or administrators) or lengthy, in-person observations. The purpose of the current study was to develop a self-report questionnaire for teachers in preschool through 3rd grade for use when systematic observations of teachers are unfeasible, students may be too young for a student report measure, or researchers wish to use multiple measures of teaching styles. A convenience sampling approach was used to recruit in-service (certified) and pre-service teachers (college students preparing to become teachers) in the Central Plains region. The researchers developed the initial items used to create the Teaching Styles Questionnaire (TSQ) as a modification of the 60 most relevant items from the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ; Robinson et. al, 1995). We used factor analyses to explore potential subscales and test the convergent validity of the Teaching Styles Questionnaire subscales. By using factor analyses, long and short versions of the Teaching Styles Questionnaire were developed, consisting of 27 and 16 items respectively. The model fit indices indicated both versions of the Teaching Styles Questionnaire have a good model fit. Criterion-related validity was supported by correlations with the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). Limitations to this study are discussed.


ERQ 45.2 December 2021

The Impact of the QEP Process on Advising Culture

Anthony Strawn
Ben Littlepage
Murray State University

In 2004, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools – Commission on Colleges, (SACSCOC) required a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) for accredited postsecondary education institutions as part of the decennial reaffirmation process. The goal of any QEP is to improve student success. However, little evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of an institution’s QEP a decade after its implementation. The researchers purposefully sampled six community colleges in five states with a QEP focused on improving academic advising between 2008 and 2012. The six community colleges agreed to participate in a multi-site case study and explore how their respective advising-focused QEPs impacted the culture and improved the academic experience and success of students. At each institution, Fifth-Year Impact Reports were analyzed, and faculty, staff, and QEP directors, if available, were given an electronic pre-visit survey and interviewed in-person. One theme emerged from the study: institutions developed a holistic approach to advising students and fostered an attitude of caring on each campus.

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Two Regression Lines Suffice to Determine and r2 and r

Jyotirmoy Sarkar Mamunur Rashid
Indiana U - Purdue U Indianapolis DePauw University

The Pearson correlation coefficient can be recovered from the two least squares regression lines and without any data. This can be done both algebraically and geometrically. This can be done without data even when the scales of the variables are different. The authors conclude with ways to use such information during instruction to help scaffold student understanding, number sense and problem-solving skills.

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Problems of Turkish Education System and Solution

Arslan Bayram Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi

The teaching profession can be an extremely rewarding career. It can also be a challenging work and problematic from time to time. Therefore, the aim of this This qualitative research is to reveal problems that teachers encounter in the Turkish educational system and solutions to solve these problems. The data were collected with interview technique, and analyzed with content analysis technique. The participants were consisted of 23 teachers currently employed in Turkish schools. The participants were determined with purposeful sampling method. Results reveal that teachers have a variety of problems. Among these problems, they underlined their disturbances on frequent changes in the education system, exam-based teaching system, traditional ways of teaching, lack of interest and motivation, planning. They also complain about crowded classes, insufficient teacher training, incompatible educational policies.

ERQ 45.1 Sept 2021

Development and Psychometrics Evaluation of the Happiness Scale for Africans

Rasaq Kayode Awosola Idemudia Erhabor Sunday
Ambrose Alli University NorthWest University

There is dearth of research in happiness among Africans, because of no indigenous scale among the plethora of scales used in measuring happiness. Consequently, an indigenous happiness scale was conceived using a three stage method (stage 1 = 48, stage 2 = 408, stage 3 = 1468 participants). A sequential mixed method approach and cross sectional design were used for data collection and to validate the proposed happiness scale. The results indicated that the model fit was acceptable and confirmed one factor solution for the 23 items (SRMR =.065; PRATIO = .923; PNFI = .602; and PCFI = .615). The analyses further indicated that the scale showed a satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.92). The scale had both convergent and discriminant validities with coefficients of 0.38 and -0.22 respectively. Therefore, the scale would serve as a “proxy” measure for happiness among the indigenous African population.

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Development of The Second-Grade Students' Problem-Solving through Mental Computation Activities

Volkan Sayin Ömer Şahin
Amasya University

This research aimed to examine whether the activities related to mental computation strategies had any effect on the development of the second-grade elementary school students’ problem-solving (PS) skills. Participants of the study are comprised of 14 children aged 7-8 years and enrolled in the second grade of the elementary school of a village. For the collection of data, the Problem-Solving Task (PST) which is composed of 12 problems linked with addition and subtraction operations was utilized. The identification of problems to be included in PST was based on problem types suggested by Sarama and Clements (2009). In this action research which lasted five weeks and three hours per week, 13 mental addition-subtraction activities (MASAs) were applied to children. Responses given by children to PST were examined in the context of time, accuracy, and strategy variables. At the end of executed activities, it was discerned that mental computation strategies used by children in solving problems got diversified, children’s response speed was accelerated and the number of correct answers given by children went up. Before MASAs, it was found that children had difficulty in solving problems through mental computation, gave random answers, or tried to count with their fingers for computation. After MASAs, it was deduced that strategies that were selected by children differed on the basis of problem types.

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Flow States in Math: The Relationships with Attitudes Towards Math and Engagement in the Classroom

Aytaç Kurtuluş Ali Eryılmaz
Eskişehir Osmangazi University Yıldız Technical  University
State University of New York, Stony Brook

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships between the flow states and undergraduate attitudes’ towards math and engagement in a mathematics course in an education faculty. The results showed that the more positive attitudes the students had towards mathematics courses, the more flow they experienced and the less anxiety they had in mathematics courses. In addition, the flow and anxiety levels of the students varied according to their major fields of study. The groups with the lowest levels of anxiety and the highest levels of flow state were students who were studying mathematics education and science education, whereas the students studying computer technology education had the highest levels of anxiety and the lowest levels of flow state. Increasing emotional engagement and positive attitudes of students in mathematics courses can help them stay longer in flow state.

ERQ 44.4 June 2021

The Effects of Authentic Learning Practices on Academic Success in Science Courses

Naciye Aynas Mecit Aslan
Hakkari University Van Yüzüncü Yıl University

This study aimed to analyze the effects of authentic learning practices -applied in science course- on academic success. A quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups was used in the study. The data of the study were collected from 92 students (31 of those in the experimental group, 31 of those in the control-I group and 30 of those in the control-II group) at the level of 6th grade in Van/Turkey in the 2017-2018 academic year. The academic success test developed by the researchers was used to collect data for the study. This test was applied to all three study groups as the pre-test, post-test and permanency test. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data obtained from the study. The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control groups in terms of academic success post-test and permanency test in favor of the experimental group. Besides, it was determined that authentic learning practices applied in the experimental group were effective in increasing academic success and provided permanent learning.

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Teacher Turnover, Student Proficiency, and Economic Mobility: The Case of Forsyth County, NC Elementary Schools

Zachary D. Blizard
Winston-Salem State University

Forsyth County, North Carolina has the third lowest rate of upward economic mobility of any other county in the United States. One of the strongest correlates of upward mobility is the quality of schools in the local system. Using 2018 and 2017 NC Public School Report Card (SRC) data for Forsyth County elementary schools, I find that the annual rate of teacher turnover is a significant predictor of student proficiency levels. Schools where the majority of students test at proficient levels tend to have lower teacher turnover, holding constant other important factors. Schools with high turnover disproportionately serve economically disadvantaged children. Reducing turnover can improve student outcomes in elementary school, especially for those students who come from underprivileged families. I argue that the Forsyth County school system can assist in reversing low mobility rates by targeting teacher turnover, especially in low-performing schools.

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Flow States in Math: The Relationships with Attitudes Towards Math and Engagement in the Classroom

Aytaç Kurtuluş Ali Eryılmaz
Eskişehir Osmangazi University Yıldız Technical University

State education departments find themselves pressured to reduce costs while improving student performance. To do so, state education departments must measure the performance of each school district in an objective, data-informed manner. We present a benchmarking methodology and illustrate its application in New York State school districts. We found that New York State can improve performance on standardized tests in English, Mathematics, and Science by 5.8% to 7.1%, improve graduation rate by 6.4%, and reduce staffing by at least 8.4%. The methodology provides three alternative strategic directions for each school district.

ERQ 44.3 March 2021

Principals' Views on Factors Affecting Academic Success: A Case Study from Turkey

Neşe Börü
Hacı Bektaşı Veli University

The present study investigated school principals’ views on students’ development of academic skills. The study adopted phenomenology, which is a qualitative research strategy, as the research design. The data collected from participants have been analyzed both inductively and deductively. Two main themes (school administrative and centralised practices and regulations) and 12 sub-themes emerged from the analysis. With limitations in mind, principals’ leadership skills, the synergy in schools, the effectiveness of the discipline system in schools, parents’ level of interests in and visits to schools and the quality of such visits, the student and parent profiles1, and the educational policies of the Turkish Ministry of National Education have been found to be among the factors affecting schools’ levels of academic success. The complex nature of schools not only causes differentiation among their aims and practices but also decreases the significance of comparing their success rates.

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Chinese Pre-service Teachers' Technology Use Experiences and their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Liangyue Lu Wei Wang
Grambling State University Kang Hsuan Educational Publishing Group

To provide a holistic profile of the factors pertinent to teachers’ knowledge in technology integration in teaching, the experiences of technology uses and the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of Chinese preservice teachers (PSTs) were investigated. The researchers also studied what demographic backgrounds and technology use experiences predict PSTs’ TPACK. A TPACK survey was translated from English into Chinese and administered to the PSTs at a large university in Southern China. The PSTs in this study had adequate access to technology. Most PSTs (92%) reported using computers for learning related activities, but fewer (20%) used technology for productivity purposes (e.g., creating webpages). The PSTs were less confident in their technological knowledge, compared to other TPACK domains. The PSTs had significantly different levels of knowledge in other TPACK domains if compared by gender, major, prior experience through educational technology course work, or prior classroom teaching experience. The researchers identified statistically strong predictors for each TPACK domain. Implications of the findings, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are provided at the end of the paper.

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Performance Targets for School Districts

Christie L. Comunale Thomas R. Sexton
Michael Shane Higuera Kelly Stickle
State University of New York, Stony Brook

State education departments find themselves pressured to reduce costs while improving student performance. To do so, state education departments must measure the performance of each school district in an objective, data-informed manner. We present a benchmarking methodology and illustrate its application in New York State school districts. We found that New York State can improve performance on standardized tests in English, Mathematics, and Science by 5.8% to 7.1%, improve graduation rate by 6.4%, and reduce staffing by at least 8.4%. The methodology provides three alternative strategic directions for each school district.

ERQ 44.2 December 2020

School Administrators’ Perceptions and Experiences with Isolation and Social Loneliness in the Workplace

Adem Bayar
Amasya University

The aim of this study was to explore the isolation or perception of social loneliness school administrators experience in the workplace. To this end, the researcher has addressed the following research questions: What are the isolation and social loneliness perceptions of school administrators?, What are the causes of isolation and social loneliness experienced by school administrators?, and What should be done to overcome the isolation and social loneliness experienced by school administrators? The data were obtained via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using descriptive analysis. The researcher has found that school administrators perceived isolation and social loneliness to be primarily a result of lack of communication and support. Moreover, the participants ranked their reasons for this isolation and social loneliness as follows: disconnect from supervisors, struggles with teachers, legal issues, different pressure groups, economic troubles, other school administrators, and technology addiction. Additionally, the participants offered suggestions for overcoming this issue.

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An Evaluation of Assessment Equity for Special Education Students in Texas

Randy Hendricks Craig Hammonds
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
Mistie Dakroub Cameron Tx ISD

The use of standardized assessments to monitor the success and productivity of public school systems in the United States is arguably a necessary component of state accountability systems. This research study is not intended to challenge the compulsion of accountability via testing, but the results of this study do raise questions regarding the equity of the assessment process required by the state of Texas for its public school system. The demographics of the Texas public school student population includes a subgroup of special education (SPED) students who are currently charged with performing on state standardized tests at the same level as their general education counterparts. These SPED students previously participated in an assessment at a slightly lower rigor level than the cohort test, with fewer questions to complete. Texas policymakers removed this mid-level assessment, referred to as the STAAR Modified (STAAR M) test after 2014, and moved forward with one testing option for most SPED students. This option assesses not only SPED students, but also general education students (Texas Classroom Teachers Association, 2013). This study calls into question the need for a tiered testing system for SPED students who function in the mainstream population but require significant instructional accommodations or curricular modification. This quantitative study employs the use of a readability analysis tool to assess the 2014 STAAR and the 2014 STAAR M to determine assessment readability levels for grades three through eight in the subjects of reading, social studies, and science. In addition, an analysis of passing percentages was conducted for SPED and non-SPED students tested in the same grade levels and subjects for 2012-2015; 2015 represents the first year that STAAR M assessments were not available to the SPED population. The data from the readability and passing percentage analyses were used to evaluate the degree of assessment equity for the Texas SPED student population after the elimination of the STAAR Modified assessment option.

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Teacher Effects, Student School Attendance and Student Outcomes: Comparing Low and High Performing Schools in North Carolina

James S. Etim Alice S. Etim Zachary D. Blizard
Winston Salem State University

The No Child Left Behind Act (2002) stipulates that states assess students during their K-12 educational experience at various points as a way of measuring student learning. In North Carolina, the State has the NC Schools Report Card that documents to the public, parents and educators the state of education in the schools annually. A major goal of school districts and schools is to ensure student success, including high level of pass on the state achievement tests. Educational planners, policy makers, teachers, parents and other interested parties are engaged in studies and strategies on how to improve the student performance in schools and the overall quality of education.

ERQ 44.1 September 2020

An Analysis of Public School Principals’ Perceptions of Social Media, Computer and Smart Phone Use in Schools in Eight U.S. States

Richard L. Dodson
Murray State University

This research examines how public school principals in eight U.S. states perceive social media, computer and smart phone use in their schools. States were selected to represent high, middle, and low scorers in the annual Education Week “Quality Counts” report (Education Week, 2019). A total of 1,259 out of 8,535 working principals in the eight states responded to an online survey, yielding a response rate of nearly 15 percent. Results showed that while most principals believed schools should issue computers to all of their students, fewer than half of the schools issue computers to all or some students. Fewer than half of the schools restrict student phone use during class to educational purposes, but most schools require teacher approval in order for students to use smart phones in class. Permitting phones during non-instructional time and keeping phones in lockers or in backpacks during the school day were also top priorities in most states. Most principals want to increase the use of social media in classrooms. The study also showed that although a majority of principals believed educational goals drive instruction in their schools, over one-fourth thought technology drove instruction. Nearly one in eight believed educational goals and technology should be equal partners in driving instruction.

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Determination via Paired Comparison of the Opinions of Primary School Students on Befriending Students with Special Education Needs

Tahsin FIRAT
Adiyaman University, Turkey

The purpose of this study was to determine via paired comparison the opinions of primary school students on befriending students with Special Education Needs (SEN). Data were acquired in the study from 327 students at 3rd and 4th grades in primary school. In addition, semi-structured interviews were also carried out with 30 students randomly selected from among these students taking into consideration the class level. Study data were acquired from the responses of the students to the paired comparison scale and from the interviews carried out with the students. The responses to the paired comparison scale were analyzed using the paired comparisons III. Hal and V. Hal method; whereas the interviews carried out with the participants were analyzed via content analysis method. It was determined based on the analyses that the participants mostly want to befriend typically developing students and gifted students and least of all the students with intellectual disabilities or autism. Various prejudices, fears and communication issues were determined to be effective as causes for why the participants do not accept these students as friends.

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The Impact of Professor Engagement, Student Peer Interactions, and Traditional Status on Student Assessment of Quality of Teaching and Learning

Caroline C. Chemosit Lincoln College
John K. Rugutt Illinois State University

As institutions of higher education become more learner-centered, and as the number of adults enrolled in higher education continues to increase, it is important to identify effective strategies for creating a learning-centered environment. A survey was used, and the measures assessed a wide variety of factors of teaching and learning among college students. Complete and usable data came from 1536 students. Data screening led to the elimination of thirty-six cases. Regression results indicate that the overall model significantly predicts quality of teaching and learning (QTL), R2 =.191, R2adj =.189, F (3, 1532) = 120.60, p <. 001. This model accounts for 19.1% of variance in QTL. Professor engagement (PE) and peer interaction (PI) were significant predictors of QTL while traditional student status was not. The interaction factors for PE and PI with traditional student status were not statistically significant. The study concluded with a discussion of the importance of institutions of higher learning to be sensitive to variables such as PE, PI among other variables so that they are fully involved in providing the kinds of educational experiences that can enhance QTL.

ERQ 43.4 June 2020

The Effects of Peer Coaching and Video Training on Targeted Teaching Behaviors in an Early Field Experience

Deanna Kay Rice University of Central Arkansas
Kristin A. Gansle Kenton Denny
Louisana State University

The effects of peer coaching on the development of effective teaching behaviors of education students in an early field experience in special education were examined at a large public university in the southern United States. Training methods included online video instruction on targeted effective teaching behaviors including establishing student learning objectives, modeling solving a problem, checking for understanding, and providing specific praise statements. The treatment group (n = 32) was assigned in pairs to tutor elementary pupils performing below grade-level expectations in mathematics. The peer coaching pairs provided reciprocal feedback to each other after tutoring sessions. The control group (n = 67) received the same training as the treatment group on effective teaching behaviors but did not receive feedback during the field experience on their instructional performance. Eighty-nine participants submitted pre-and-post-intervention videos via a web-based storage service and were included in the analyses. Positive effects of peer coaching were not observed, however both treatment and control groups showed increases in the targeted teaching behaviors after online video training and the use of a checklist of effective teaching behaviors. Study participants and public school personnel provided feedback regarding the value and positive impact of the intervention and training. Implications and future research are explored.

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An Examination of Key Assessments in a Teacher Education Program: Muddy Water With Purpose

Joe D. Nichols Purdue University Fort Wayne

The purpose of this project was to examine the results of 8 key assessments that elementary and secondary teacher education candidates completed during their teacher education program. The participants for this project were 72 elementary and 49 secondary pre-service teaching candidates at a mid-sized urban university in the Midwest who were in the process of completing their student teaching experience in the fall of 2016 and the spring of 2017. Significant correlations were found among several of the key assessments and the latest state required Pearson licensing exam. Implications are discussed in light of the new accreditation standards that were recently instituted by the Council of Accreditation for Educator Preparation (CAEP).

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African American Student Perceptions of Higher Education Barriers

Jillian Davidson Teresa B. Clark
Amanda Ijames Ruth Faith Cahill
Trent Johnson
Murray State University

This study explored perceptions of African American college students concerning barriers to enrolling in higher education institutions, focusing on a public comprehensive regional university in Kentucky, using interviews and focus groups. The focus of the research pertained to ACT testing requirements, home and school support systems, and the role of financial aid. Data from the interviews and the focus groups suggested the study’s findings were consistent with the literature. The findings included that African American students perceived ACT testing requirements, lack of support systems, and access to financial aid as barriers for to enrollment in higher education at a public regional university. While this is a single case study with limited transferability, this research does provide a snapshot of the barriers African American students may face when enrolling in higher education and provide a structure other campuses could use to more fully explore their students’ pathway to enrollment.

ERQ 43.3 March 2020

An Investigation of College Student Learner Orientation Impact on Perceptions of Instructor Behavior Alteration Techniques/Messages

Grace M. Hildenbrand Marian L. Houser
Purdue University Texas State University

This study examines college students' learner orientation (grade vs. learning) and their willingness to comply with instructor use of prosocial and antisocial behavior alteration techniques/messages (BATs/BAMs). Specifically, the relationships between students' willingness to comply with instructor BATs/BAMs and their learning and grade orientations are examined. Results indicated that grade oriented students and students who were low or high in both grade and learning orientation were more willing to comply with antisocial BATs/BAMs, while learning oriented students were more willing to comply with prosocial BATs/BAMs. Instructors should adapt their persuasive strategies based on their students’ learner orientations to increase student compliance.

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Correspondence Between Self-reported and Actual High School Grades

Cheryl L. Somers Austin Townsend Ariel Baranowski
Stephen B. Hillman Elizabeth Robtoy
Wayne State University

Aims: Educational research often relies on the self-reports of students to determine their grades/GPA for reasons including ease of administration, time constraints, IRB approval, and assumption of accuracy. The main purpose of this study was to determine the validity of student self-reports on their academic grades, and if the benefits outweigh the potential errors. Methods/ Results: Participants (n=415) were students in a suburban school in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Two methods of self-reported grades were correlated with students’ actual transcript grades. Results showed fair amounts of correspondence (r=.60-.89), with actual grades being correlated at higher levels than self-reported grades. Conclusion: Younger students and those with higher grades were more accurate reporters. Those with more diligent academic behaviors also demonstrated greater accuracy, and those with a vaguer sense of future goals demonstrated less accuracy. All results are discussed in the context of how valid are students’ self-reported grades for research purposes.

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Educator Perceptions of Artistically Gifted Children: Degree of Alignment between Beliefs of Music Specialists, Art Specialists, and Administrators

Stephen T. Schroth Jason A. Helfer
Towson University Illinois State Board of Education

Public schools often offer arts opportunities to certain students. Educator assessments of which students should receive services are of great importance in such circumstances as teacher referrals often play a major role in such decisions. Little is known, however, about educator beliefs regarding which gifted children should receive arts opportunities and what criteria should be used for selection to those programs. The current national study surveyed 1,500 educators regarding which students they believed would benefit most from arts education, qualities and characteristics that have changed by the creation of the new National Arts Standards. The educators believed that the majority of gifted children should receive arts instruction, but displayed a preference for those children who were well-behaved and displayed characteristics traditionally connected to gifted children. Certain educators also demonstrated a belief that arts enrichment should only be available for those students who were successful academically and withheld from those who struggled completing homework assignments or obtaining high grades in other subjects. Such results are potentially devastating to low-SES students, who have few other options for such instruction.

ERQ 43.2 December 2019

The Influence of Race, Gender, Age, and Geographic Location on Children’s Fears

Joy J. Burnham Jamie D. Mills Youn-Jeng Choi
University of Alabama

While exploring several demographic variables for the first time, this study found significant differences across urban, rural, and suburban locations, age level, gender, and racial identity. There were 487 students in Grades 2 – 12 in this study. Previous fear studies have investigated the impact of living in a rural or urban communities on children, thus only a limited number of studies are available for comparison purposes. The findings for this study revealed that while considering geographic location, significant differences were reported across race, age, and gender, based on the five fear-factors identified on the elementary version of the FSSC-AM (Burnham, 2005). Two unique perspectives were gathered from this research and several findings merit further review. Specifically, this study put forward distinctive findings that rendered greater understanding of how youth differ across gender, age, location, and racial identity in relation to fears. While implications for counselors are offered, results are useful for educators and other helping professionals who work with school-aged children and adolescents.

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Effects of the TWA Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities

Tahsin FIRAT Cevriye ERGÜL
Adiyaman University, Turkey Ankara University, Turkey

One of the main reasons why students with learning disabilities have difficulty in reading comprehension is their inability to have metacognitive skills such as planning, monitoring and evaluating their reading performance. In this context, the study aimed to investigate the effects of the TWA strategy, which enables students to think about their comprehension process before, while and after reading, on reading comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. In the study, a “multiple probe across subjects” from single case design was used. The study was carried out with three students in sixth grade who were diagnosed with learning disabilities. The implementation process was continued as modelling for the TWA strategy instruction, guided practices and independent practices after the baseline level data of the subjects were obtained. The data were analyzed at the end of each session considering the comprehension performances of each subject. The results indicated that the TWA strategy instruction was effective in improving the expository text comprehension of students with learning disabilities. They continued to use the skills they gained in maintenance sessions and were able to generalize these skills to different type and structure of texts.

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Pre-service Preschool Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Quantity Concepts in Terms of Children's Mistakes

Ömer ŞAHİN Halil İbrahim KORKMAZ
Amasya University Ege University, Turkey

This study examined the pedagogical content knowledge of pre-service preschool teachers on quantity concepts in terms of children's mistakes. A total of 94 pre-service teachers who were attending a teacher training program at a state university, in Turkey, participated this study. 52 of them were second-year, and 42 of them were third-year pre-service teachers. The case study method, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was applied. Five different vignettes were used as a data collection tool developed by the researchers. The summative content analysis technique was used to analyze the data. It was observed that the third-year pre-service teachers who took the preschool mathematics education course were partially successful in identifying children’s mistakes regarding the quantity concepts. The second-year pre-service teachers who did not take the preschool mathematics education course failed to identify the mistakes. The results of the study showed that the pre-service preschool teachers were not adequately prepared to eliminate children’s mistakes. The second-year pre-service teachers mostly preferred direct instruction and demonstration methods to eliminate children’s mistakes. The third-year pre-service teachers mostly preferred the meaningful learning, educational game and direct instruction methods to eliminate children’s mistakes.

ERQ 43.1 September 2019

School Improvement and Effectiveness Underpinned by School-based Data and Research

Sally Knipe
La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia

The technological capacity that now exists to gather and store large amounts of data has improved access to information regarding young people in schools. Improvements in data management techniques and statistical data software packages have made retrieving and analysing systems data a more accessible and manageable process. On a smaller scale, schools collect considerable amounts of data. However, school personnel lack the skills and understanding of the potential for analysis and research. This article describes the application process of a School-based Index Analysis (SIA) successfully applied in several schools. The SIA is a site-specific and site-based research tool that has the potential to enable schools use their own data to direct and monitor their own research.

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Kentucky Public School Principals’ Perceptions of Social Media, Computer and Smart Phone Use in Schools and How Well Their Principal Preparation Programs Prepare Them

Richard L. Dodson
Murray State University

This research examines how public school principals in Kentucky perceive social media, computer and smart phone use in their schools. 228 of the 1,200 working principals in Kentucky responded to an online survey (response rate of 19%). Most respondents worked in rural schools. Most principals surveyed believe that schools should issue computers to all students, although fewer than a third of the schools actually issue computers to any students. Most principals said they want to increase the use of social media in their classrooms and believe that educational goals drive technology use in their schools. Still, over one-third of principals in the study believe that technology is driving instructional practice, and most of the principals said that neither the Principal Preparation Program (PPP) they attended nor their state department of Education provided effective strategies for them to use in addressing social media use in their schools.

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Styles of Thinking Used by Prospective Teachers in Problem-Solving

Yasemin Deringöl
Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa

For success in learning, it is highly important to know about how individuals think, how they develop thinking skills and the styles of their thinking. There are also situations where the thinking tendencies of each individual are different. These situations are also the types of thinking demonstrated by students while solving a problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant thinking styles of prospective primary school teachers and prospective secondary school mathematics teachers while they are solving problems. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 346 prospective teachers including 145 secondary school mathematics and 201 primary school prospective teachers who were enrolled at a state university in Istanbul, Turkey. The study was in the form of a screening design, and a descriptive method was used. The data collection tools were the ‘Personal Information Form” developed by the researcher and the ‘Scale of Holistic and Analytical Thinking while Problem-Solving’ developed by Umay and Kızıltuğ (2007). For the purpose of the study, the subsequent questions of the study included determining whether or not the dominant thinking styles of prospective teachers (analytical and holistic) vary based on their gender, department and class levels. The study concluded that the prospective teachers were individuals who were closer to the style of holistic thinking.

ERQ 42.4 June 2019

Preservice Teachers’ Multicultural Attitudes, Intercultural Sensitivity, and their Multicultural Teaching Efficacy

Hyunjin Kim Jillian Connelly
University of Rhode Island The Goddard School

This study examined early childhood preservice teachers’ multicultural teaching efficacy and its association with their multicultural attitudes and intercultural sensitivity. A total of 90 preservice teachers enrolled in an early childhood teacher education program in a state university in the Northeast U.S. were included in this study. The results showed that preservice teachers’ multicultural attitude and all five sub-constructs of intercultural sensitivity including overall cultural sensitivity were positively related with multicultural teaching efficacy. The results also showed that preservice teachers’ attitudes and beliefs are significant factors in early childhood preservice teachers’ multicultural teaching efficacy. This study discusses educational implications in ways of enhancing preservice teachers’ sense of multicultural teaching efficacy.

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The Profile of Undergraduate Students who Utilize the Services of the Counselling Centre at the University of Benin, Nigeria

Andrew A Adubale Oyaziwo Aluede
University of Benin Ambrose Ali University

This study investigated the profile of students that seek counselling assistance at the counselling centre of the University of Benin in Nigeria. This was an exploratory study that adopted a census method to obtain information from the six thousand two hundred and seventy (6,270) students that utilized the counselling services provided by the counselling centre of the University of Benin during the 2015/ 2016 academic session. The findings revealed that male students sought counselling assistance more than female students, as did students within the age bracket of 21-25 years. Also, 200 and 300 level students made use of the counselling centre more than students of other levels. Academic issues were of the greatest concern to the students, followed by emotional concerns, then financial concerns, while health concerns were presented less often. It was recommended that more sensitization and orientation programmes should be embarked on by staff of the centre to heighten the relevance of the centre to students, given that at present only about 25% utilize the services.

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An exploratory study of the Cultural Impact on Middle School Students’ Collaborative Problem-solving Learning

Shifang Tang Texas A&M University

Collaborative problem-solving learning (CPS) is a critical and necessary instructional activity across educational and cultural settings, but its application in the classrooms and impact on students’ learning are shaped by the culture it is blended in. By utilizing the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 Collaborative Problem-solving data, this exploratory study examines the differences between China and the United States regarding middle school students’ CPS performance. The results indicated that students in both countries could solve a medium-difficult problem with collaborative effort. Due to the Confucian Heritage Cultural impact, Chinese students underperformed in CPS as compared with their peers in the United States. The conclusion emphasizes that providing Chinese teachers with CPS embedded curriculum and related professional training could enhance their students’ CPS proficiency.

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Holocaust Curriculum Used by Christian English and Social Studies Teachers: An Exploratory Study

Molly J. Wickam Bethel University

The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to understand what and how students learn about the Holocaust in private Christian/Catholic middle and high schools. Christian schools have been criticized for putting more emphasis on teaching religion than on providing a quality education. A convenience sample of middle and secondary English and social studies teachers in Minnesota was surveyed about curriculum resources, religious perspectives, lesson objectives, and instructional strategies used to teach the Holocaust. Findings showed teachers used a variety of Christian and secular resources, curricular goals focused on four themes, and books were widely used. Teachers may need assistance locating and integrating digital resources into curricula, and more formalized education about the Holocaust may be helpful.

ERQ 42.3 March 2019

Developing a Personal Philosophy of Education: A Requsite Guide to Educational Practices

Felix Okechukwu Ugwuozor
University of Nigeria

Educational philosophy is the backbone of any efficient teacher. It encapsulates essentially the principles, the ways of thinking and the beliefs that provide the foundation and the framework on which teachers define, delineate, and justify their teaching agendas, their curriculum preferences, their pedagogical styles, their classroom organizational structures, name it. My experiences as a lecturer in a teaching college for several years have left me with no doubt to think that several teachers get into the teaching profession with little or no consciously well-articulated or sound educational philosophy, and thus lack the foundation likely to help them examine what they do, recapture the meaning of their profession, and guide them and their students toward greater learning outcomes. Arguably, formulating a personal educational philosophy is important for all teachers. It is my hope that in presenting the meaning of philosophy of education together with highlighting its inherent underpinning force needed for effective educational philosophy and in analyzing the processes involved in personalizing it, teachers and educators everywhere gain insight into and will be better guided in the exciting and challenging task of formulating their own educational philosophy.

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Improving Teacher Quality: Professional Development Implications from Teacher Professional Growth and Effectiveness System Implementation in Rural Kentucky High Schools

Thomas J. Pharis Echo Wu Stephanie Sullivan
Murray State University
LaSonya Moore University of South Florida

Focus on improving teacher quality and student achievement led many state departments of education to implement research-based teacher effectiveness systems. The Teacher Professional Growth and Effectiveness System (TPGES) was implemented as the Kentucky teacher effectiveness system. This study examined teachers’ and principals’ viewpoints concerning the impact of TPGES on increasing their knowledge and understanding of the evaluation process and needed additional professional development at the end of the implementation year. Study results indicated mixed viewpoints concerning their knowledge and understanding of TPGES and of their viewpoints concerning additional needed professional development. In addition, researchers identified four professional development implications based on participating educators’ TPGES professional development efforts. Due to the rural setting, these implications are not generalizable to all schools; however they could provide guidance for other public school educators as they work to implement successful professional development initiatives in their schools.

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Understanding Academic Entitlement: Gender Classification, Self-Esteem, and Covert Narcissism

Mark A. Whatley David T. Wasieleski Jennifer E. Breneiser
Valdosta State University
Meagan M. Wood Mississippi University for Women

Academic entitlement (AE) refers to a personality characteristic reflecting the degree to which students believe they have a right to special treatment within the classroom even though it may be undeserved. The construct has been linked to narcissism (Wasieleski, Whatley, Briihl, & Branscome, 2014). The present study investigated how self-reported gender classifications, GPA, and self-esteem relate to the academic narcissism subscale of the Academic Entitlement Scale (AES: Wasieleski et al., 2014). Subjects were 418 undergraduate students from the University of Alabama. Results indicated that biological males reported higher levels of academic narcissism, which is consistent with previous research. Surprisingly, subjects classified as undifferentiated reported higher levels of academic narcissism than masculine, feminine, or androgynous individuals. In addition, masculine and androgynous individuals exhibited higher levels of self-esteem. Results provide further validation of the AES and its potential utility for student services. Implications for using identified gender classification when researching self-esteem and narcissism are discussed.

ERQ 42.2 December 2018

Understanding Curricular Student Expectations in Texas: Readiness Standards vs. Supporting Standards

Kevin Barlow
Arlington Independent School District
Natalie Weber Nicole Koch Randy Hendricks
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

Current context for educational reform in the United States is codified in revisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. Periodic reauthorizations reflect changing national and educational landscapes (Klein, 2015). The most recent reauthorization, Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 (USDE, 2015), is currently undergoing the regulatory process and is scheduled to go into effect during the 2017-2018 school year (USDE, 2017). This paper will examine the impact of standards based accountability (SBA) reform within a changing national context from the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reauthorization of 2002 (USDE, 2002) to ESSA in 2015 through the Texas context of SBA, a descriptive analysis of types of standards, and a statistical analysis of performance by cohort from 2013 to 2016.

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Methods? Data? Sources? Utilizing a Research Schedule to Scaffold Student Learning

Sally Knipe Rebecca Miles
La Trobe University
Christine Bottrell
Federation University

Many university students, from a range of disciplines, are required to undertake introductory research method units as part of their undergraduate or post-graduate qualification. These units provide the learner with skill development to read and make use of research as it relates to their discipline. However, research is a complex area making the teaching of research to first time consumers of research, a challenge. This article describes the use of a Journal Article Research Analysis (JARA) Schedule with 150 students studying in a research method subject as part of graduate entry initial teacher education program. The results of the study indicate that the schedule proved to be a great resource in assisting students understand the main domains of research. This is an approach and a resource that academics teaching research method classes could adopt to assist student learning.

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Girl child and women education: Exploring the narratives of six educated Nigerian women

Margaret Ebubedike
University of Worcester

The narratives of six female Higher Education (HE) leaders’ in Nigeria were examined. As educated women themselves, the participants mention that education empowered them to explore further on their capabilities, assert their agency, and subsequently challenge structures and institutions that limit them as women. Hence, denying women and girls access to education has implications both on their lives, and the society in terms of missed opportunities. The key decision-makers and influencers of their education were their fathers. The experiences of these women could possibly provide insight into government gender policies in Nigeria, and other developing nations: particularly, in the area of, women and girls education. This study, took into account the aspect of voice and experiences of the women and how education has contributed to changing their lives. It adds to a global scholarship of the phenomenon under review which allows for the development of more in-depth and holistic understanding of women and girls education, and how it could be redressed in order to provide equal educational opportunity for all by 2030.

ERQ 42.1 September 2018

A Metaphorical Analysis of Novice Teachers’ Perceptions Concerning First Year in Teaching, Induction Process, School Administrators and Mentor Teacher

İshak Kozikoğlu
Van Yüzüncü Yıl University

The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of novice teachers about the first year in teaching, induction process, school administrators and mentor teacher through metaphors. This research designed as a qualitative study was carried out with 120 novice teachers working in Van province, Turkey. The data of the research were obtained by a survey form. In the analysis of the data, content analysis technique was used. As a result of the research, it was found that a large majority of novice teachers used metaphors concerning first year in teaching with negative connotations such as lack of experience, difficult process, disappointment; most of the novice teachers used metaphors concerning induction process with negative connotations such as a difficult process, feeling of oppression, anxiety of not becoming a teacher, and not being seen as a teacher; nearly half of the novice teachers used metaphors concerning school administrators with negative connotations such as power element/oppressive, variability, symbol of formality, unfairness, and indifference; the vast majority of novice teachers have a positive view of their mentor teachers seeing them as supporters or guides, but approximately one quarter of them used metaphors that described mentor teacher as oppressive and ineffective.

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Factors Influencing University Student Academic Success

Daniel Hepworth Ben Littlepage Katy Hancock
Murray State University

Ensuring student success has been a ubiquitous and enduring goal of institutions of higher education, making it paramount to identify how this goal can be achieved. The researchers identified social integration, perceived institutional commitment to student success, and academic preparedness as potential predictors of student academic success. An ordinal regression model was used to test the relationship between the predictor variables and class grade. A sample of students enrolled in a freshmen-level general education, gateway course was surveyed. Perceived commitment of the institution to student welfare and social integration were not statistically significant. However, academic preparedness was found statistically significant in predicting the acute measure of academic success. These findings suggest that, in the quest to ensure student success, social integration and commitment should be considered secondary factors to academic preparation.

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Poverty and Parent Marital Status Influences on Student Achievement

Kelly Jones Landon Clark
Randal Wilson Mardis Dunham
Murray State University

This study was designed to investigate the influence of poverty and parent marital status on eighth grade student achievement as measured by the EXPLORE, a precursor to the ACT. The sample included 520 eighth grade students at a middle school in West Kentucky—parent marital status, free/reduced lunch status, and EXPLORE test scores were obtained from archives. Contrary to expectations, this study found that only poverty distinguished the groups—marital status, by itself and in combination with poverty, had no statistically significant bearing upon test scores. Implications and limitations are discussed.

ERQ 41.4 June 2018

An Analysis of Principal Perceptions of Required Evaluator Proficiency Exams Used in the Primary Teaching Evaluation System in Seven U.S. States

Richard Dodson
Murray State University

This research examines how public school principals in seven U.S. states perceive the proficiency exam they must take and pass in order to evaluate their teachers. The test is centered on the states’ primary teaching evaluation system, which is based on Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Teaching. An online survey was developed and 832 out of over 7,000 working principals across seven states responded, yielding a response rate of nearly 12%. States were selected to represent a cross section of high, middle, and low scorers in the annual Education Week “Quality Counts” report (Education Week, 2016). Results showed that most principals were not satisfied with the proficiency test that they must take and pass in order to evaluate their staffs. Many principals called for the elimination or drastic overhaul of their proficiency exam. Suggested changes also showed that most principals wanted better quality videos they must watch to evaluate teaching lessons, and they also wanted the test to be less subjective. The survey showed that more principals than not believed the test was unfair and should not stay the same.

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Viewing the Behavioral Responses of ED Children from a Trauma-Informed Perspective

Patricia Smedley Buxton
University of Bridgeport

The purpose of this study was to investigate via a trauma-lens the types of behavioral responses recorded in the IEPs of ED children. The theoretical orientation for the study was based heavily on the framework for school-based psychological evaluations identified by Tishelman, Haney, O’Brien and Blaustein (2010). Using the retrospective record review methodology, this exploratory study confirmed existing research on the behavioral responses of ED children and added to the literature by detailing preliminary evidence of behavioral responses that aligned with three of the four functional core domains in which children may display trauma-related difficulties in school.

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The Examination of Alignment Between National Assessment and English Curriculum Objectives Using Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

İshak Kozikoğlu
Yüzüncü Yıl University

Bloom's taxonomy for the classification of the objectives in cognitive domain was developed in mid 1950s and this taxonomy was revised by a group with Anderson and Krathwohl by making some changes and revisions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the objectives of 8th grade English curriculum and TEOG exam questions (national assessment exam) according to Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. This was a descriptive study using qualitative research method. English curriculum and TEOG exam questions were gathered from the website of Ministry of National Education (MONE). The data were obtained by document analysis technique. In the analysis of data, two-dimensional chart was used based on the classification in Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. And, frequency and percentage were used in presentation of the data. The results of the study showed that in 8th grade English curriculum more than half of the objectives are at the "apply" level and half of the objectives are intended for applying procedural knowledge. There is not any objective including metacognitive knowledge. 23% of the objectives are intended for higher order thinking skills such as analyze, evaluate and create level. However, it was found that most of the English course questions in TEOG exam were designed at lower order thinking skills such as "remember" and "understand" level. There are no alignments between objectives of English curriculum and English course questions in TEOG exam. So, alignment between curriculum objectives and assessment is suggested.

ERQ 41.3 March 2018

Is Critical Thinking a Mediator Variable of Student Performance in School?

Christel Walter Paul Walter
University of Cooperative Education Saxonia University of Bremen

The study explores the influences of critical thinking and interests on students’ performance at school. The tested students attended German grammar schools (“Gymnasien”). Separate regression analyses showed the expected moderate positive influences of critical thinking and interests on school performance. But analyzed simultaneously, applying a Structural Equation Model, only a direct effect of critical thinking on school performance was observed. Furthermore, critical thinking seems to be a moderator variable, mediating an indirect effect of interest on school performance. An additional analysis of the data showed that the influence of critical thinking could exclusively be observed in the subsample of students who had a family background without a migration history. In the subsample with migration history critical thinking and interests did not have an effect on school performance. Since the students with migration history did not differ in school performance from their fellow students without migration history, the result gives rise to the assumption that those students in German grammar schools may have chosen other ways of motivation and learning style to school performance. Further research has also to clarify why critical thinking turns out to be a mediator of school performance and if this function is observable regarding other variables and different age groups. Beyond that we suggest reconsidering some theoretical and empirical issues, especially reviewing the relationship and of critical thinking skills and dispositions.

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Cyber Mentoring in an Online Introductory Statistics Course

Mamunur Rashid Jyotirmoy Sarkar
DePauw University Purdue University

Students in an online statistics course were prone to become increasingly disengaged as the semester progressed. In Spring 2015, we took a proactive measure to retain student engagement by introducing a cyber mentoring session. We describe the framework, operation and effectiveness of cyber mentoring in improving students’ learning experience and performance. With the implementation of cyber mentoring, the percentage of online students passing the class increased from 76 percent to 94 percent, and the mean score of online students increased from 74.6 to 83.2 (out of 100), while the corresponding parameters did not change significantly for students in the face-to-face classes.

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Going Beyond the Mean: Using Variances to Enhance Understanding of the Impact of Educational Interventions for Multilevel Models

Yadira Peralta Mario Moreno Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota
S. Selcen Guzey Tamara J. Moore
Purdue University

Variance heterogeneity is a common feature of educational data when treatment differences expressed through means are present, and often reflects a treatment by subject interaction with respect to an outcome variable. Identifying variables that account for this interaction can enhance understanding of whom a treatment does and does not benefit in ways that can inform and improve the treatment. Even in the absence of a treatment effect expressed through means studying variance heterogeneity offers insight into a treatment by identifying subject characteristics related to heterogeneity. This study illustrates four methods of modeling variance heterogeneity for data from a study of the impact of an engineering design-based STEM curriculum on student achievement with a focus on multilevel models.

ERQ 41.2 December 2017

The Relationships of Problem Solving Styles to Parenting Styles: Two Studies

Julia Neyen Carolyn Ann Volpe
Edwin C. Selby John C. Houtz
Fordham University

Two independent studies were conducted to examine the relationship of problem solving styles to parenting styles. Both studies used VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Study 1 included 173 adults recruited using Mechanical Turk and Study 2 included 131 adults recruited using Qualtrics. Data were analyzed with stepwise hierarchical multiple linear regression. After controlling for age and gender, individuals who recalled and rated their mothers' parenting styles as more permissive were also those adults who rated their problem solving styles as more Explorer-type, preferring to work with fewer restrictions and preferring more novel responses to problems. Other findings across the two studies were suggestive of additional theoretical relationships among problem solving and parenting styles.

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Generating academic urgency through improved classroom management: A case study of a university and urban charter high school partnership

Erik E. Morales
New Jersey City University

This case study documents a university and secondary school partnership designed to improve classroom management and student time on task at an urban charter high school. The initiative utilized the expertise and knowledge of college of education faculty to identify and ameliorate the high school’s observed barriers to students’ time on task, and unsatisfactory levels of resulting academic success. The most pressing issues identified and addressed were excessive loss of learning time due to ineffective classroom management, and the resulting need to maximize engaged meaningful learning by limiting time wasted in the classroom.

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The Relationship Between Academic Achievement, Reading Habits And Critical Thinking Dispositions of Turkish Terttiary Level EFL Learners

Matthias Grünke Tatjana Leidig
University of Cologne

This single-case study tested a peer tutoring model using a visualizing strategy (story mapping) to teach struggling students better text comprehension. Three teams each consisting of a tutor and a tutee attending a fourth-grade general education classroom participated in the experiment. A short series of observations was carried out before and after the treatment. The intervention consisted of merely five lessons spread across one school week. However, it still induced large effects on the tutees’ ability to correctly answer different sets of comprehension questions about short stories. Besides, the procedures were easy to implement and applicable to everyday life at school without any difficulty. The article includes a discussion of the limitations of the study and suggests directions for future research.

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The Relationship Between Academic Achievement, Reading Habits And Critical Thinking Dispositions of Turkish Terttiary Level EFL Learners

Gülten Genç
Inonu University School of Foreign Languages

The aim of this study was to describe EFL learners’ critical thinking levels and to examine the relationship between participants’ critical thinking levels and selected variables such as gender, academic achievement in EFL, subject area, and self-reported reading. The overall design of the study was based on the quantitative research method. Data were collected from 280 students of different faculties attending the School of Foreign Languages using the Turkish adaptation of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) during the 2015-2016 academic year. Measurements of subscales were also used for diagnostic purposes. The results indicated that participants in this research generally have a low critical thinking disposition. Moreover, they have low critical thinking dispositions in five of the scales -analyticity, inquisitiveness, self-confidence, truth-seeking and systematicity- while they have medium critical thinking disposition in just one subscale -open-mindedness-. It was seen that females had higher scores with respect to analyticity and open-mindedness; successful students were more open-minded; the participants reporting that they read every day had higher scores in inquisitiveness and self-confidence than the other groups and finally it was seen that participants’ subject areas did not indicate a significant relationship with any of the subscales. Some recommendations were made in accordance with the findings of the research.

ERQ 41.1 September 2017

A Study of the Relationship Between Demographic Factors and Elementary School Teacher Burnout : The Iranian Case

Mohammad Mazidi Friba Khoshbakht Mahboobe Alborzi
Shiraz University

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Using the TouchMath Program to Teach Mathematical Computation to At-Risk Students and Students with Disabilities

Ryleigh Ellingsen Elias Clinton
Black Hills State University

This manuscript reviews the empirical literature of the TouchMath© instructional program. The TouchMath© program is a commercial mathematics series that uses a dot notation system to provide multisensory instruction of computation skills. Using the program, students are taught to solve computational tasks in a multisensory manner that does not require memory retrieval of arithmetic facts or potentially stigmatizing strategies such as finger counting. This review targets two specific research questions: (1) Does TouchMath© improve the computational skill repertoires of students with, and at risk for, disabilities? (2) What population of students has the TouchMath© literature included (e.g., age, gender, disability type)? Based on the collected data from the collective literature, this review espouses that the TouchMath© program should be considered an evidence-based practice for teaching math computation to students with, and at-risk for, disabilities. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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The Effects of an Intervention Combining Peer Tutoring With Story Mapping on the Text Comprehension of Struggling Readers: A Case Report

Matthias Grünke Tatjana Leidig
University of Cologne

This single-case study tested a peer tutoring model using a visualizing strategy (story mapping) to teach struggling students better text comprehension. Three teams each consisting of a tutor and a tutee attending a fourth-grade general education classroom participated in the experiment. A short series of observations was carried out before and after the treatment. The intervention consisted of merely five lessons spread across one school week. However, it still induced large effects on the tutees’ ability to correctly answer different sets of comprehension questions about short stories. Besides, the procedures were easy to implement and applicable to everyday life at school without any difficulty. The article includes a discussion of the limitations of the study and suggests directions for future research.

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A Place for Us? Latino Parent and Student Satisfaction in a Cyber School

Dennis Beck Robert Maranto Sivan Tuchman
University of Arkansas

Research indicates that traditional public schools are less effective in serving Latino students. Yet Latino students, but not their parents, exhibit greater school satisfaction than do their counterparts. The purpose of this study was to examine Latino student and parent satisfaction with their cyber school and prior traditional public school using results from surveys of students (53.7% response; n=269) and parents (n=232; response = 48.7%). ANOVA indicate that Latino parents rated their cyber school and prior traditional public schools more positively than other parents. Latino students rated the cyber school but not their prior traditional public schools more positively. We discuss implications and directions for further research.

ERQ 40.4 July 2017

Jordanian Seventh- and Eleventh-Grade Students’ Views on Citizenship Education

Khaled Alazzi
Yarmouk University

Using a mixed methods approach, this study was conducted in Jordanian schools to determine the perceptions of seventh- and eleventh-grade students toward citizenship. Specifically, the study determined what students believe are the attributes of a good citizen, what activities they participate in that are related to good citizenship, and what citizenship activities they will perform 10 years in the future. The research used both a questionnaire and interviews to collect data from a stratified random sample of 515 students selected from three school districts in Jordan. The study findings revealed that students’ views of citizenship encompass community service or what is considered civic involvement, rather than political involvement. The study also showed that the participants view voting and holding public office as belonging in the future; their focus is on the present. The researcher considers that the concept of good citizenship is related to age and maturity.

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Location of Developmental/Remedial Coursework Predicts Successful Completion of College Algebra: A Study of Louisiana’s Developmental Students

Daphne E. Williams Mxolisi S. B. Siwatu
Grambling State University Rockville, Maryland

Developmental education programs and services have long provided underprepared and unprepared postsecondary students with the academic tools and life-management skills necessary to successfully complete college-level coursework. Legislation and policy changes, including implementing statewide minimum admissions requirements and restricting developmental coursework to the campuses of community colleges, have changed the landscape of developmental education within the State of Louisiana. While both four-year and two-year institutions have offered developmental coursework in the past, these policy changes have added to the debate of whether developmental learners are better served on the campuses of four-year institutions or community colleges. Using data from the Louisiana Board of Regents’ Statewide Student Profile System, Student Transcript System, ACT Class Profiles, and Financial Aid Data System for AY 2006, this study sought to determine if the location of developmental English and math courses could predict success in college-level English and math courses. Results indicated that students who completed developmental mathematics courses at a four-year university were 20% less likely to successfully complete college algebra than students who completed developmental mathematics at a community college (OR=.796; CI95<.05). Location of developmental English coursework did not predict freshman English performance in a statistically significant manner. Implications for developmental education/remedial education policy and practice are discussed.

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Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation

Jyotirmoy Sarkar Mamunur Rashid
Indiana University DePauw University

The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the ‘mean’ squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This interpretation leads to a geometric visualization of the sample SD, and a more elementary explanation as to why the denominator in the sample variance is one less than the sample size.

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Female Arab Students’ Perceptions of Social Networks as an English Language Learning Environment

Maha Ellili-Cherif
Qatar University

The purpose of this research was to investigate female Arab college students’ use of and perceptions about social networking sites (SNSs) as an English language learning environment. A mixed methods approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. First, a questionnaire was used to explore the extent to which participants (n=182) were familiar with, and used SNSs in general. Using a five point likert scale (5=Always and 1=Rarely), the second part of the questionnaire investigated the extent to which participants used SNSs to improve their English language skills. Analysis of quantitative data indicated that participants make limited use of social networks to enhance their English skills. Subsequently, focus group interviews of 34 questionnaire respondents who accepted to be interviewed were conducted to find out the reasons why participants were reluctant to use SNSs to learn English. The interviews focused on respondents’ perceptions of the role of SNSs in helping them to improve their English language skills, and their opinion on the value of incorporating SNSs in their English language courses. Qualitative data analysis helped to delineate negative factors affecting the respondents’ use of these tools. Implications for the integration of SNSs in Arab higher education contexts are discussed.

ERQ 40.3 March 2017

Values and Beliefs Regarding Discipline Practices: How School Culture Impacts Teacher Responses to Student Misbehavior

Julia T. Atiles
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Talley M. Gresham Isaac Washburn
Oklahoma State University

The purpose of this study was to determine whether teachers’ sense of efficacy influences their attitude towards the use of physical punishment in schools. There were two groups of participants in the study: pre-service and in-service early childhood teachers. The sample was made up of 78 in-service teachers from two different school districts and 61 pre-service teachers from a mid-western university early childhood education preparation program. There were multiple significant findings in the study. Teachers who value developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) significantly use non-punitive responses more frequently. Values about corporal punishment and self-efficacy were not related to non-punitive responses. Teachers in the school district that allows principal-approved corporal punishment were less likely to use non-punitive responses. In-service teachers used more punitive responses than the pre-service teachers. However, overall referral to principal for corporal punishment did not seem to be related to teacher efficacy, thus, leading us to believe that teacher efficacy and teachers’ attitudes towards physical punishment are completely unrelated, and may be two different constructs.

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Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Children of Divorced Families and Relations to Teacher Efficacy

Julia T. Atiles
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Mallory I. Oliver Matthew Brosi
Oklahoma State University

Teachers are well-positioned to play a critical role in fostering resiliency in children of divorce and to assist in reducing the risk for adjustment problems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preservice early childhood teachers have the awareness of the stress responses and effects of parental divorce on their students. Early childhood preservice teachers responded to questionnaires that asked about awareness of the effects of a parental divorce on a child and awareness of the stress responses exhibited by a child due to a parental divorce. Results indicate that preservice teachers had moderate awareness about children’s normative stress responses and those who had a high sense of efficacy had a moderate positive correlation with their overall awareness of atypical behaviors in children of divorce. Preservice teachers with personal experience of parental divorce had a lower level of awareness of the stress responses and effects of divorce than those who had not experienced a parental divorce. Participants closer to completing the teacher preparation program had significantly higher awareness of the effects on and stress responses that children can exhibit due to a parental divorce. Discussion and implications for pre-service teachers are presented.

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Mistakes Made By Freshman Students of Science Teaching and Their Reasons During the Proving Process

Burçin GÖKKURT Bartın University
Emrullah ERDEM Adıyaman University
Kani BAŞIBÜYÜK Erzincan University
Ömer ŞAHİN Amasya University
Yasin SOYLU Atatürk University

The aim of this study was to examine the mistakes made by freshman students of science teaching during the process of proving and the reasons for these mistakes. To this aim, the study, which was conducted via the case study method, was performed with 52 freshman students who were studying at the department of science teaching in a state university. A test composed of eight open-ended questions was used for data collection, and non-structured interviews oriented towards identifying the reasons for the mistakes made by the students were conducted with eight students.The content analysis technique was utilised in data analysis. It was found that many of the students made mistakes in terms of method, in other words, they used incorrect methods. In this regard, it was detected that more than half of the students regarded assigning numerical values as a method of proof, whereas a few of them made conceptual mistakes, algorithmic mistakes, misunderstood the questions, etc. Furthermore, it was determined that these mistakes resulted from reasons such as the fact that the students did not have any previous experience related to proof; they regarded assigning numerical values as a method of proof; and their lack of knowledge.

ERQ 40.2 December 2016

The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

Timothy J. Runge Douglas A. Longwill Mark J. Staszkiewicz
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
James Palmiero Tina M. Lawson
Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network

Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.’s (2010) blueprint to describe and evaluate the large-scale adoption of SWPBIS. That document provides the structure for assessing the context, content, fidelity, impact, and replication of installation efforts. Particular focus of the current review is on context, content, and fidelity of scale-up efforts. Over 600 schools have received training on SWPBIS since 2007, with fidelity of implementation confirmed in approximately 200 of those schools. Sources of support for the expansion of SWPBIS include federal and state grants, resources from regional and state-level allied youth and family-serving agencies, and local contributions. Training and technical assistance is provided by a cadre of certified facilitators who utilize standard training protocols. A statewide conference dedicated to Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports has grown in course offerings and attendance while maintaining high attendee satisfaction. Future directions in Pennsylvania include expanding SWPBIS to more schools, authentically engaging youth and families, including culturally-sensitive training and practices into SWPBIS training and implementation, improving the quality of annual program evaluations, and helping schools install advanced tiers of support.

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Evaluation of Probabilistic Reasoning Evidence from Seventh-graders

Emrullah ERDEM Ramazan GÜRBÜZ
Adıyaman University

The purpose of this study was to evaluate probabilistic reasoning of seventh-grade students (N=167) studying at randomly selected three middle schools that served low and middle socioeconomic areas in a city of Turkey. “Probabilistic Reasoning Test (PRT)” was developed and used as data collection tool. In analyzing the data, participants’ scores of the test were computed and their probabilistic reasoning levels were determined. Sample responses of some students regarding any question (Q14) in the test were presented directly and discussed. Analysis of data showed that most of the participants had medium (30.5%) and high (32.9%) level of probabilistic reasoning. Here, it is possibly inferred that in general terms, the probabilistic reasoning level of the students is medium and high. It can also be suggested that thanks to open ended probabilistic problems that students try to present a solution way instead of focusing on multiple-choice answers, they can reason more often.

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A Meta-Analysis of Video Modeling Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

Elias Clinton
Black Hills State University

Video modeling is a non-punitive, evidence-based intervention that has been proven effective for teaching functional life skills and social skills to individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. Compared to the literature base on using video modeling for students with autism and developmental disabilities, fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of using video modeling based interventions for students with high-incidence disabilities (e.g., specific learning disabilities, emotional/behavioral disorders). This meta-analysis evaluated the utility of using video modeling to decrease disruptive behaviors and increase positive pro-social behaviors of students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Additionally, this paper compiled a list of research gaps related to video modeling and students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Implications for future research directions are discussed.

ERQ 40.1 September 2016

New Teaching Techniques to Improve Critical Thinking. The Diaprove Methodology

Carlos Saiz Silvia F. Rivas
University of Salamanca

The objective of this research is to ascertain whether new instructional techniques can improve critical thinking. To achieve this goal, two different instruction techniques (ARDESOS, -group 1- and DIAPROVE, -group 2-) were studied and a pre-post assessment of critical thinking in various dimensions such as argumentation, inductive reasoning, causal, analogic, and deductive reasoning, decision-making and problem-solving was conducted. The results show that both forms of instruction functioned as expected. Both groups improved in all the dimensions of critical thinking. However the group with the new technique was only better in two dimensions with respect to group 1, namely in deductive and inductive reasoning, but not in problem-solving and decision-making. One possible reason accounting for this discrepancy was our inability to implement the new methodology in all dimensions, such that it was applied where there was greater improvement in group 2 than in group 1. The implications of this study are important because they allow us to know which new variables are crucial for instructional methodology.

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Increasing Reading Fluency using Read Naturally® with Two Third Grade Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: A Replication of Erickson et al., 2015

Sarah V. Morgan T. F. McLaughlin Kimberly P. Weber
Gonzaga University
Barbara Bolich Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program. The program was used in hopes to improve each student's ability in reading fluency. The study used Read Naturally® as an intervention for two struggling readers identified as two third grade students. The program included passage reading and comprehension. The participants were placed in the correct instructional level within the program by determining their age, grade level, reading abilities, and instructional level. The Read Naturally® program followed a multi-step procedure that required the students to read for a minute for a cold read and hot read, read passages aloud, follow along as the passages are read through an audiotape, and answer comprehension questions pertaining to the passages. Data were collected throughout the study to determine if there was an increase in words per minute for each participant from a cold read to a hot read.. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was examined through an ABAB single-subject reversal design. The overall outcomes indicated improved fluency for each student. This improvement from hot to cold reads during the intervention was not found for either participant. Therefore, caution is urged regarding the use of Read Naturally®.

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Getting More Out of Educational Workshop Evaluations: Positively Packing the Rating Scale

Joni M. Lakin Shankharupa Chaudhuri
Auburn University

Collecting evaluations following a professional development workshop and similar events has become common practice for assessing workshop quality. However, these evaluation forms often do not reflect best practices in survey development and result in average ratings that are uniformly high and uninformative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rating scales on workshop evaluations using an experimental design where participants were randomly assigned one of four evaluation forms with different rating scales following workshops. We found that using a typical "poor to excellent" scale yielded the highest average (most homogeneous) ratings while scales that were off-centered, with more positive than negative scale points (positively packed), yielded ratings with more variability. Recommendations for designing workshop evaluations are provided.

ERQ 39.4 June 2016

Please Note: There is a discrepancy in the date for the June 2016 issue of Educational Research Quarterly. The issue cover should say "June 2016" but instead says "June 2014". We apologize for the error.

Academic Achievement and Extracurricular School Activities of At-Risk High School Students

Ryan Marchetti S. Marshall MS
Randal H. WilsonMardis Dunham
Murray State University

This study compared the employment, extracurricular participation, and family structure status of students from low socioeconomic families that achieved state-approved benchmarks on ACT reading and mathematics tests to those that did not achieve the benchmarks. Free and reduced lunch eligibility was used to determine SES. Participants included 211 high school seniors from a large, rural southeastern high school. Eighty five of the participants met the low SES criterion and were the study’s primary focus. The study found that at-risk students from low SES families that met ACT reading and mathematics benchmarks were more likely to participate in extracurricular activities than students that did not meet this benchmark. Unexpectedly, students who met the reading benchmark were statistically less likely to have both parents employed. Student employment status and family structure were not statistically associated with ACT performance. Implications and areas for future study are discussed.

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Grading Rigor in Counselor Education: A Specifications Grading Framework

Matthew W. Bonner
Lenoir-Rhyne University

According to accreditation and professional bodies, evaluation and grading are a high priority in counselor education. Specifications grading, an evaluative tool, can be used to increase grading rigor. This article describes the components of specifications grading and applies the framework of specifications grading to a counseling theories course.

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Effects of Pre-service Teacher Learning and Student Teaching on Teacher Education

Maadi M. AlAjmi Mohammed D. Al-Dhafiri Zaid N. Al-Shammari
Kuwait University

The purposes of this research were to investigate and examine the effects of pre-service teacher learning and student teaching on teacher education. Three hundred and ten out of 349 intentionally selected participants responded to a two-dimensional survey. The gender, nationality, marital status, age, and academic year had no significant effects, but pre-service teacher learning (71%) and student teaching (75%) had significant influential effects on teacher education. In two academic majors (English education and geology education), pre-service teacher learning, student teaching, and teacher education had significant influential effects. In light of our results, the discussion addresses the influential effects found in this research compared to previous research findings and makes recommendations both for administrators in the University's teacher-education programs and for future research intended to improve the quality of teacher-education programs through the development of and/or improvements to pre-service teacher learning and student teaching as complementary components of teacher education.

ERQ 39.3 March 2016

Survey of Developmental Students’ Print and Online Metacognitive Reading

Mary Keller Boudreaux
University of Memphis

This quantitative study is a comparative analysis of developmental students’ print and online support metacognitive strategy use. More specifically, a study was conducted utilizing the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) to measure developmental college students’ awareness and perceived use of support reading strategies while comprehending print and online academic texts. The findings show significance in four of nine support metacognitive reading strategy uses.

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The Cultural Intelligence Level Among International Students In Jordanian Universities

Abdelnaser Al-Jarrah
Yarmouk University

This study investigated the level of cultural intelligence among international students and whether significant statistical differences could be found in their cultural intelligence at the level (α = 0.05) due to the students’ gender and the nationality. To achieve the study aims, a cultural intelligence scale were adopted (Yordonova, 2011). The scale consisted of 20 items distributed on a four\subscale. The study sample consisted of 169 male and female students from various nationalities, purposefully selected from a group enrolled in teaching Arabic for non-native speakers’ program in the language centers of the University of Jordan and Yarmouk University in the second semester of 2012/2013 academic year. The study results revealed that the students' cultural intelligence level was high. The results also showed that no statistical significant differences existed due to gender. Statistical differences were found, however, due to nationality in the favor of American students.

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Increasing Social Interactions Using Prompts and Rewards for Adolescents with ASD in an Ice Hockey Practice Context

Kevin Beiers K. Mark Derby T. F. McLaughlin
Gonzaga University

We evaluated the effects of using prompts and reinforcement procedures to increase the social interaction of two children with autism (ASD). This study took place during the context of a hockey practice. Two adolescent participants were evaluated using an ABAB single subject reversal design. Baseline data were collected prior to and after the implementation of a treatment phase. During baseline, the social interactive behavior of participants was measured. The participants engaged in vey low levels of social interaction. During treatment, the instructor applied prompting and reinforcement with the participants and social interaction was measured. The results indicate that social interaction of our participants can be increased during the hockey practice through the use of prompting and reinforcement.

ERQ 39.2 December 2015

Establishing Groups in the College or University Classroom: Using VIEW to Form Better Cooperative Groups and Improve Learning Outcomes

Stephen T. Schroth Jason A. Helfer
Towson University Illinois State Board of Education
Mary A. Crawford Jessie D. Dixon Helen M. Hoyt
Knox College

Six classes at a selective liberal arts college in the Midwest, two each in chemistry, educational studies, and Spanish, used cooperative groups as part of the students’ learning experiences. One class from each discipline used VIEW to formulate these cooperative groups, while those that constituted the control groups used more traditional ways of creating groups. At the end of each class, all students were given a survey asking them to evaluate various aspects of their experiences with group activities. Those students whose groups had been formed using data from VIEW reported statistically significant differences in their satisfaction with their group experiences, especially with regard to attention the group gave to new ideas, preferences for the level of structured authority, how information was handled by the group, and the balance between task concerns and personal or interpersonal needs when making decisions.

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Flipped @ SBU: Student Satisfaction and the College Classroom

Benjamin Gross Mike Hoffman
Maddalena Marinari Kimberly DeSimone
Peggy Burke

Saint Bonaventure University

In this paper, the authors find empirical support for the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model. Using a quasi-experimental method, the authors compared students enrolled in flipped courses to their counterparts in more traditional lecture-based ones. A survey instrument was constructed to study how these two different groups of students varied in terms of student engagement, student satisfaction, and academic performance. Overall, we found that high levels of student engagement and course satisfaction characterized the students in the flipped courses, without any observable reduction in academic performance.

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Kentucky Principal Perceptions of the State’s New Teacher Evaluation System: A Survey Analysis

Richard L. Dodson, Ed.D
Murray State University

This research examines how public school principals in Kentucky perceive their new teacher evaluation system and the proficiency exam they must take and pass in order to evaluate their staff. An online survey was developed and 308 out of an estimated 1,100 working school principals across Kentucky responded, yielding a response rate of 28%. Results showed that most Kentucky principals were not happy with the new teacher evaluation system and the proficiency test they must take. Responses suggested an average of three changes they would make to the evaluation system or the proficiency test; positive comments were rare. Targets for improvement include the software system used to enter teacher evaluations, the evaluation’s student growth goals and student voice section, and more training from the state on how to use the new evaluation instrument. A majority of the principals might leave their job earlier than planned because of having to implement the new evaluation instrument; most also might leave earlier than planned because of the increased number of teacher evaluations they have to perform as part of the system or because of the increased emphasis on test scores in teachers’ evaluations. Most respondents, however, agreed that using the new evaluation system has improved their school’s instructional program and that the new instrument is preferable to their old teacher evaluation instrument. Most respondents felt unprepared to implement the new evaluation system.

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ERQ 39.1 September 2015

An Evaluation of Read Naturally® on Increasing Reading Fluency for Three Primary Students with Learning Disabilities

Janna Erickson K. Mark Derby T. F. McLaughlin
Gonzaga University
Katrina Fuehrer
East Valley School District

The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the reading fluency program Read Naturally®. This program employs passage reading and comprehension questions. These are graded at various instructional levels (kg. to adult). The program employs several practice procedures such as passage reading along with a pre-recorded audiotape, reading the passage independently, and finally reading the same passage again to an adult. The participants were two, third graders (one boy and one girl), and a fourth grade boy. Data were collected on the correct words read orally per minute across various lessons. These data were gathered in the elementary school’s resource room and taken daily. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was evaluated with a multiple-baseline design. Our overall outcomes indicated that there was little change in correct words read per minute without practicing the passage (a cold read) and a large increase in correct words read after practice (a hot read). The results suggest that the procedure of repeated practice with an audiotape and practicing independently are effective procedures for increasing words read per minute. While the present outcomes were positive, further research is warranted regarding the efficacy of the Read Naturally® in the schools.

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Instruments to Measure Elementary Preservice Teachers’ Conceptions: An Application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model

Cindy Jong Thomas E. Hodges
University of Kentucky University of South Carolina
Kenneth D. Royal Rachael M. Welder
North Carolina State University Western Washington University

This article reports on the development of the Mathematics Experiences and Conceptions Surveys (MECS), a pair of comprehensive instruments designed to measure elementary preservice teachers’ dispositions, attitudes, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. In addition to conceptions, MECS aim to capture elementary preservice teachers’ related mathematical experiences at various benchmark stages in teacher education programs. The Rasch Rating Scale Model is used to examine the psychometric properties of MECS instruments and to establish six scales that are capable of producing reliable and valid measures. Finally, we present an illustration of how MECS might be used within elementary mathematics teacher preparation.

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The effects of argumentatıon based scıence learnıng approach on creatıve thınkıng skılls of students

Bayburt University Atatürk University

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of argumentation based science learning (ABSL) approach on 9th Grade of Secondary Education students' creative thinking skills. The sample of the study included 22 9th grade of Secondary Education students in Bayburt in 2012-2013 academic year. In this study quantitative research method and pretest-posttest experimental design was adopted. As a data collection tool Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking Verbal-Figural Form A was used and the collected data were evaluated by using SPSS program (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). While evaluating data, t-test was used for the sub-dimensions with normal distribution, whereas Wilcoxon test was used for the sub-dimensions not with normal distribution. The results of analysis showed that argumentation based science learning approach has a positive effect on creative thinking skills of students'. At the beginning and end of semester, Torrance test analysis showed that there is a significant difference in favor of the posttest. Furthermore, according to the sub-dimensions of Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking Verbal/Figural Form A, significant differences were found for Verbal Form A all sub-dimensions. While significant differences were not found between pretest and posttest results for the sub-dimensions of elaboration, synthesis of incomplete figures and emotional expressiveness, significant differences were found for the rest of sub-dimensions in favor of the posttest. In addition, it was observed that critical discussion skills of students were developed in the process.

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ERQ 38.4 June 2015

Formulating Good Open-Ended Questions in Assessment

Gila Shilo Kfar Saba, Israel
Beit Berl Academic College

The purpose of the study was to examine the quality of open test questions directed to high school and college students. One thousand five hundred examination questions from various fields of study were examined using criteria based on the writing centers directions and guidelines. The 273 questions that did not fulfill the criteria were analyzed in this study. The commonest mistakes found were: inappropriate usage of action verbs (66%); errors in formulation (13.1%) and the use of titles instead of questions (9.5%). In my opinion, the two most important findings of the study are the high percentage of inappropriate use of action verbs and inadequate number of points given to questions, since these findings were not described previously. The study results suggest that training teachers in question-writing should be incorporated in the curriculum for pre-service and in-service teachers. Various ways of composing more coherent test questions are described after presenting and discussing the mistake types.

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The Effect Using the REWARDS® Reading Program on Vowel Sounds, Word Part, and Prefix and Suffix Identification in Multi-Syllabic Words: A Case Report

Isabelle C. Klee Sarah M. Brasch Jennifer Neyman
Isabelle C. Klee
Gonzaga University
Sue Stookey
Spokane Public Schools

Proficiency, accuracy and fluency in reading is an essential part of nurturing a disposition towards learning, growth and continued education for any student who wishes to be successful in school. Many studies have assessed the efficiency and success of various reading programs that have been developed to improve these areas of reading proficiency. The REWARDS® Program is one such example. This program works to increase a student’s ability to decode multisyllabic words using specific strategies including vowel sound, word part, and prefix and suffix recognition. REWARDS® can be used as intervention elementary to high school, and with students in both general and special education settings. This study was performed by two undergraduate students at a high school in the Pacific Northwest and assesses the progress of a 14-year-old-female participant who was diagnosed with a specific learning disorder in reading skills. The study tracks the development of the participant’s reading skills through the use of the REWARDS Program. Through this study, there was clear evidence that the REWARDS Program had a positive impact on the student’s ability to decode multisyllabic words.

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A Modified Delphi Study to Define Ah ha Moments in Education Settings

Jobeth Pilcher
Capella University

Ah ha moments are often mentioned in education literature. These moments are suggested to be a powerful aspect of learning, yet limited research is present regarding this topic. Ah ha learning moments have also not been defined in the education literature, resulting in the likelihood that each educator and learner may have differing definitions. Before studies can be conducted to seek out educational strategies to promote these learning moments, a clear definition is needed. This article presents the results of a modified Delphi study aimed at seeking a consensus definition of ah ha learning moments among a group of experts from varied education settings.

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ERQ 38.3 March 2015

The Effects of a Modified Cover, Copy, Compare on Spelling Tests and in Written Compositions for Three Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Ashley Goodman T. F. McLaughlin K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University
Mary Everson
Spokane Public Schools

Spelling skills are vital in teaching students to read and write effectively. One method to help students learn to spell words correctly is called cover, copy, and compare (CCC). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of using CCC on the spelling and writing skills of three students with learning disabilities. These skills were measured both before and after implementation of CCC spelling intervention. When CCC was in effect, our participants spelled more words correctly on spelling test probes. Generalization of correct spelling on a writing samples was found. The students reported they enjoyed using CCC.

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Pathways to Teaching: An Examination of Black Females' Pursuits of Careers as K-12 Teachers

Abiola A. Farinde
University of Pittsburgh
Jennifer K. LeBlanc Amanda S. Otten
Texas A&M University

White, female, middle-class teachers dominate the education field. As a result, Black female teachers are underrepresented in the teaching field. Statistically, Black female teachers represent 7.7% of the United States teaching force, while White female teachers make up over 60% of the American teaching workforce. With the aim of diversifying the teaching pool, this phenomenological study explored the lived K-12 and collegiate educational experiences of Black female in-service teachers in order to gain insight about their vocational choices to become educators. Constant comparative data analysis revealed four major themes. The results of this study have implications for teacher education programs and educational policy.

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Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

Al-Hroub A

This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role that parents play in preventing Palestinian students from dropping out of school. Based on qualitative field data, the methodology is grounded in tracking the trajectories of five drop-out cases. These five cases were drawn from four carefully selected United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools in Lebanon. The cases provide ethnographic accounts of the risk factors underlying students’ dropping out of school in these communities. Attention is paid to important issues, including socio-economic status, school curriculum and services, corporal punishment, and family involvement. The conclusion of this paper looks toward developing a plan to address the rate of early school drop-out in Palestinian refugee camps based on the findings of this report.

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ERQ 38.2 December 2014

Analysis of the Mathematical Proof Skills of Studens of Science Teaching

Burçin Gökkt
Yasin Soylu
Atatürk Universiy

Ömer Şahin
Amasya University

Mathematics and proof are two closely related concepts. Mathematics not only shows what is right or wrong, but it also teaches that it is not enough to know the latest formulas and results should be explained with causality. In this context, students learn the underlying meaning behind what mathematicians do by way of proofs. Accordingly, this study aims to analyse the mathematical proof skills of students studying science teaching. The study group is composed of 50 first-year college students studying science teaching in the academic year 2011-2012. The study employs case study method as a form of qualitative research and six open-ended questions are used for data gathering purposes. The obtained data show that students successfully employ mathematical proof methods (induction, deduction etc.), but the majority of the students accepted the technique of giving a numerical value as a method of proof.

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Cross-sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledg

Ismail Yuksel
Eskisehir Osmangazi University

Elif Yasin
TOBB University of Economics and Technology

The current study aims to identify the language teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) survey. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the scale was .90. The data of the study were analyzed via descriptive statistics, t-test and one-way analysis of variance test. Findings indicated that the participating language teachers had average competency levels in TPACK. Results also suggested that teachers’ TPACK scores were not significantly different in terms of gender or work place. However, teachers who had five years or less of teaching experience had higher scores in TPACK than the other groups.

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A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

Edward B. Westermann
Texas A&M University-San Antonio

This paper examines an alternate approach to the “flipped” classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction along with collaborative techniques. The use of flipping has largely been tied to the incorporation of video technology either in the form of a student practicum or an instructor lecture via on-line delivery combined with a classroom meeting involving collaboration and/or application exercises in the face-to-face session. With respect to flipping the history classroom, this paper offers the results from an upper division history course in which historical primary sources were introduced in the on-line portion of a hybrid class. The use of the primary sources also included a bi-modal collaborative mechanism, since students collaborated by sharing their thoughts prior to class and the start of the class incorporated a student-centered collaborative exercise based on the primary sources. This collaborative discussion on the primary sources served as the gateway into the broader topic discussion. This paper describes this process and uses student feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of this methodological approach.

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ERQ 38.1 September 2014

Girl-child education outcomes: A case study from Ghana

Frank S. Arku Emmanuel N. Angmor Isaac K. Tetteh
Presbyterian U College

The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana’s girl-child educational project.

According to the findings, the project has helped to improve the girls’ confidence level and performance in examination. They associated more with their colleagues from affluent homes, and the financial burdens on their parents were also lessened. However, more girls need to be supported and boys with the same socio-economic backgrounds of the girls also need to be assisted by such educational projects/programs.

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Student Motives for Taking Online Courses in Educational Administration

Theodore J. Kowalski David Dolph
University of Dayton
I. Phillip Young
University of South Carolina

This study was conducted with students enrolled in a master’s degree program in educational administration at a private research university that offered all required courses in both online and in-class formats. The purposes were to determine (a) the extent to which online courses were selected, (b) the level of importance students placed on four common motives for taking online courses, and (c) levels of association between the importance of values and two demographic variables (employment level and years of teaching experience). The extent to which students took online courses varied considerably. Convenience and flexibility were the most important motives and instructional preference was the least important motive. Although associations between each motive and the two demographic variables were small, the correlation coefficients for convenience and teaching experience and for flexibility and teaching experience were slightly higher than the others.

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Not so fast my friend: The rush to R and the need for rigorous evaluation of data analysis and software in education

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

Commercial data analysis software has been a fixture of quantitative analyses in education for more than three decades. Despite its apparent widespread use there is no formal evidence cataloging what software is used in educational research and educational statistics classes, by whom and for what purpose, and whether some programs should be recommended over others. This paper argues that the rise of the R data analysis software has intensified the need for rigorous evaluations of these programs to identify their strengths and weaknesses in ways that provide educators with guidance in choosing programs. Examples of research activities to produce a literature to guide these choices are described.

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ERQ 37.4 June 2014

The Relationship between Library Use and Academic Achievement of English and Spanish-Speaking Hispanic American Students

Hae Seong Park Jenny Yau
Azusa Pacific University

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between school library use and academic achievement of Hispanic students. This study utilizes data from the base-year and the first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. A series of hierarchical regression analysis is incorporated to examine the nature of associations among the variables in this research. The results indicate that Hispanic students’ school library usage for class has a positive relationship with academic achievement, while their library usage for entertainment has a negative relationship with academic achievement. However, effect size of the students’ library usage on academic achievement is greater for Spanish speaking Hispanic students than for English speaking Hispanic students. Implications for researchers and practice are discussed.

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Why Did The Black-White Dropout Gap Widen in the 2000s?

Suhyun Suh Ashley Malchow
Auburn University
Jingyo Suh
Tuskegee University

This research investigates causes of the widening Black-White gap in dropout rates during the 2000s using two cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, NLSY79 and NLSY97. The authors found four factors which contributed to the widening of the Black-White gap: school suspension policies, peer impact, fatherless households, and the student-teacher relationship. Logistic regression and decomposition analysis suggests that the gap would have been narrowed by 2.62% if all conditions had remained the same. This implies that factors that have been considered to impact the Black-White gap in the past do not fully explain the current racial gap. Ongoing and potential societal changes demand a new research model to understand the racial gap.

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Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky’s Principal Preparation Program

Richard L. Dodson
Murray State University

This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were emailed to school principals across Kentucky; the response rate was 30% (263 of 900 principals). Most respondents completed field experiences as part of their PPPs, and they considered many of these field experiences to have been valuable learning tools. Of those who did not complete field experiences, nearly all agreed that they would have been better prepared for school leadership had they performed field experiences. Current principals identified the most valuable field experiences to be those involving practical, hands-on, typical principal responsibilities (key words were leading, identifying, interviewing, and working). Least useful were observation-type experiences. This research finds clear support for augmenting use of two particular types of field experiences: (1) Budget and Finance and (2) Site-Based Decision Making. This research also shows the clear practical value of making field experiences an integral part of PPPs. In light of recent criticism that PPPs fail to adequately “ready” school principals, this research offers clear prescriptions for PPP improvement and highlights areas in which Kentucky’s PPPs succeed.

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ERQ 37.3 March 2014

A Multisite Study of High School Mathematics Curricula and the Impact of Taking a Developmental Mathematics Course in College

Michael Harwell Danielle Dupuis Thomas R. Post
Brandon LeBeau Amanuel Medhanie
University of Minnesota

The relationship between high school mathematics curricula and the likelihood of students who enroll in a developmental (non-credit bearing) course in college taking additional mathematics courses was studied. The results showed that high school mathematics curriculum, years of high school mathematics completed, and ACT mathematics scores were related to developmental mathematics course-taking, but curriculum was not related to the subsequent mathematics course-taking of students who began college with developmental mathematics. The results have important implications for educational researchers and policymakers at the college and high school levels.

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Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

Julia T. Atiles Nikole Dominique-Maikell
Oklahoma State University

Kathleen McKean
Oklahoma Technical Assistance Center

The use of concept maps in early childhood and primary education is not new. Educators have utilized concept maps as instructional and learning tools. Nancy Gallenstein (2003) defines a concept map as a “graphic/visual representation of concepts that shows various relationships between concepts” (p.82). The literature has documented that concept maps can be used to encourage inductive reasoning and critical thinking (Gallenstein, 2003); illustrate relationships among themes (Workman & Anziano, 1994); organize knowledge (Berionni & Baldón, 2006); help children represent what they know and what they are thinking (Birbili, 2006); teach scientific language to kindergarteners (Mancinelli, Gentili, Priori & Valitutti, 2004); and enhance preschooler’s knowledge gains by facilitating metacognitive thinking (Cassata & French, 2006). The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce concept maps as a methodology in quantitative research with young children as the research participants. While Bannister and Atkinson (1998) used concept mapping as an assessment tool, Birbili (2006) established that teachers can useconcept maps as an evaluation tool of pre-existing knowledge and misconceptions. Hough, O’Rode, Terman, and Weissglass (2007) successfully presented a methodology to quantify the differences between a pre- and post- assessment utilizing concept maps. Concept maps are easy to use and provide information regarding whether a treatment, such as a lesson on a subject, participation in a workshop, or an experience, results in the changes of the subject’s knowledge about content and/or pedagogy.

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Lower Response Rates on Alumni Surveys Might Not Mean Lower Response Representativeness

Amber D. Lambert Angie L. Miller
Indiana University

The purpose of this research is to explore some possible issues with response representativeness in alumni surveys. While alumni surveys can provide important information, they often have lower response rates due to bad contact information and other reasons. In this study we investigate potential differences between responses on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) from the cohorts of graduating seniors from 2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 and those same cohorts of alumni responding to the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project (SNAAP) in 2010 at six diverse institutions. A series of chi-squared analyses were done for each of the six cohort years. Findings indicate that the demographic characteristics and institutional satisfaction of alumni respondents closely mirror those of the graduating seniors. The results from this study suggest that even though response rates on alumni surveys might be lower, the results may be just as representative as studies with much higher response rates.

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ERQ 37.2 December 2013

The benefits of utilizing child life specialists when dealing with pediatric stress

Mahmoud Kaddoura Thomas R. Post
Katie Cormier Joshua Leduc
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Introduction: In pediatric hospitals there are varying opinions regarding who is part of the healthcare team. Each specialty has a different view on the various aspects of care.
Objective: The study explores healthcare providers’ diverse points-of-view on stress and compares coping strategies to obtain the most effective way to reduce stress in pediatric patients with a chronic condition.
Method: The study used a qualitative research design. The sample population included six nurses and five child life specialists who have significant experience in pediatrics. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. To identify common themes, a content/data analysis was performed.
Results: Six themes were recognized and led to the identification of differences and similarities between nurses and child life specialists, both of whom reported fear of the unknown as the biggest stressor for the pediatric patient. The act of healthcare workers lying to the child as an attempt to reduce stress on the child was reported as an ineffective coping strategy. Nurses reported crying as a symptom of stress, while child life specialists reported crying as an effective coping strategy. The care of a child coping under stress needs to be a collaborative group effort. Most professionals reported that situations would have been conducted more efficiently if better communication had been in place. Family-centered care was perceived as valuable for improving pediatric patient coping mechanisms.
Implications: The discovered data help to identify the importance of collaborating with all available resources to obtain the best care possible for patients. This article provides effective coping strategies to care for patients. It will help nurses and other healthcare professionals understand how child life specialists help chronically-ill patients cope effectively with stress.

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Enhancing Basic Academic Skills with Audio-Recordings: A Review of the Literature

Emily P. Taylor Christopher H. Skinner
The University of Tennessee

Elizabeth McCallum Brian C. Poncy
Duquesne University Oklahoma State University
Mike Orsega
University of West Georgia

Because teacher-to-student ratios often make it difficult for teachers to work individually with students on skill-building activities, educators and researchers have developed and evaluated procedures in which audio-recordings are used to improve basic academic skills. In the current paper, we describe and analyze reading, math, and spelling interventions that use audio-recordings to prompt and pace rapid rates of accurate responding. In this review, we provide evidence of internal and external validity of easy-to-use, low-tech, recorded interventions across students (general education students and students with disabilities) and contexts (e.g., individually administered and class-wide). Discussion focuses on future theoretical research related to causal mechanisms and applied research on modifying recorded interventions to enhance learning rates.

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A Comparison of Student Ratings in Traditional and Interactive Television Courses

Morgan McCall
Livingston County (KY) Schools
Mardis Dunham Robert Lyons
Murray State University

Although interactive television (ITV) allows colleges and universities to reach a wider audience, little research has been conducted exploring the effectiveness of the courses as perceived by students. This study compared student ratings of teacher effectiveness between 331 traditional courses and 125 ITV courses. The data included 456 graduate level courses over six contiguous semesters. Results clearly favored the traditional courses, followed by perceived effectiveness of the instructor at the ITV sending site and the ratings at the ITV receiving site. Implications for the use of ITV are discussed.

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ERQ 37.1 September 2013

Educators’ Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

Carlos Gomez-Garibello Christine Saykaly
Kelsey Moore Victoria Talwar
McGill University

The majority of research investigating children’s lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals’ abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators’ abilities to evaluate the veracity of children’s reports of bullying. In this study, educators’ abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying and educators’ confidence ratings of their abilities to detect the veracity of children’s bullying accounts were examined. Participants (93 educators) were shown video clips of children (between the age of 4 and 8 years) telling true and false statements about being bullied. Participants were asked to assess the veracity of the child’s bullying statement and rank how confident they felt about their responses. Overall, educators’ ability to detect both true and false accounts of bullying was not significantly above chance levels. Regardless of reported years of experience with children, detection rates were approximately the same; educational professionals with fewer years of experience yielded similar detection rates to those with more experience. In general, educators were not very confident in their abilities to distinguish between children’s true and false reports. However, all educators were significantly more confident in their overall ratings of false stories than true stories. While educators are not accurate in detecting deception, the current findings suggest that they may be over confident when assessing false accounts of bullying; condemning students that are falsely accused of bullying could have negative consequences for student, their classmates, and for the teacher. Through understanding educators’ perceptions of children’s lie-telling behavior, especially with respect to bullying, appropriate and effective bullying interventions can be developed by school psychologists in collaboration with educators.

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Nonfiction Reading Comprehension in Middle School: Exploring in Interactive Software Approach

Evelyn S. Wolff Harriet Isecke
Mtelegence Corporation
Christopher Rhoads John P. Madura
University of Connecticut-Neag School of Education

text are well documented. Middle school students, in particular, have minimal instruction in comprehending nonfiction and flounder on assessments. This article describes the development process of the Readorium software, an interactive web-based program being developed to assist students with comprehension of science text. The program incorporates research-based recommendations for effective reading comprehension suggested by the Institute of Education Science (IES). Efforts to turn the IES recommendations into a coherent software product that motivates learners are described, as is the process of incorporating student and teacher feedback to improve the usability of the product. Preliminary results suggest that the program operates efficiently, motivates students, and may substantially impact student comprehension of science text.

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Graduate Students’ Expectations of an Introductory Research Methods Course

Mark A. Earley
Bowling Green State University

While there is a scattered literature base on teaching research methods courses, there is very little literature that speaks to what and how students learn in research methods courses. Students are often described as coming to the course not seeing its relevance, bringing negative attitudes and low motivation with them. The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate graduate student attitudes toward research, expectations of an introductory research methods course, and any relationship between the two. A total of 117 students completed the Attitudes Toward Research scale and a series of open-ended questions. Results indicate these graduate students actually came in with moderate to high positive attitudes toward research and mixed expectations about what the course would entail. Students expected research methods to be difficult, but they did not report much anxiety related to research. Implications for teaching and future research are discussed.

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No pending national elections, who cares? What newspaper publications reveal about local efforts towards Millennium Development Goal 3.

Frank S. Arku Cynthia Arku
Presbyterian University College University of Alberta

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana’s prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles pertaining to addressing gender disparity at all levels of education and their sources. Also, we compared the rural and urban geographical emphasis of the articles. Findings demonstrated that primary level of education received the largest emphasis with the least number of writings on tertiary education. The articles were mainly authored by NGOs, politicians and education practitioners, and the majority referenced rural communities. It appeared that national elections influenced the frequency of the articles that The Daily Graphic published over the review period. We conclude that monitoring systems are central to keeping governments on track. Similarly, efforts that encourage the public to make their voice heard by frequently sending in articles can keep the state and other development agencies continually challenged and motivated until they deliver on their promises.

ERQ 36.4 June 2013

Think Pair Share: A teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students’ Critical Thinking

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for patients. Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy that provides students with adequate time to think in order to increase their quality of responses. Students become actively involved in thinking about the concepts presented in their discussion. Ninety one students participated in this study. Forty six (50%) of the participants were included in the control group (Non-TPS) and 45 (50%) were included in the experimental group (TPS). The participants were sophomore-level generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the same Health Assessment nursing course. The HESI critical thinking test was the tool used before (Pretest) and after (posttest) the course to collect data about student's CT skills. The study used a quasi experimental design. The independent sample t test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed a significant increase in CT over time, throughout the 17-week course, with the use of TPS teaching/learning strategy. The results suggest that TPS is an effective strategy to foster CT of nursing students and could be used by educators to foster learners’ CT in their courses. The study has significant implications on education, nursing practice, and research.

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The Effects of Cover, Copy, and Compare to Teach Spelling to Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities and OHI

Elizabeth Hochstetler
T. F. McLaughlin
K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University

Michelle Kinney
Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of cover, copy, and compare (CCC) on the spelling performance of three male middle school students. Two of the participants had learning disabilities and the third was health impaired. The study was conducted in a public school resource room in the Pacific Northwest. A multiple-baseline across word lists was employed to assess the efficacy of CCC. The behavior measured was correct spelling. The results showed mastery of spelling words following the implementation of CCC. The students and staff enjoyed the procedure and suggestions for additional research with CCC are discussed.

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Student and Faculty Perceptions on Plus-Minus Grading: A Case Study

Ryan N. Fries, Jamie Conklin
Jessica S. Krim Deborah A. Smith
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

The decision of higher education institutions to grade student performance with whole letters or with pluses and minuses has many factors. In particular, student and faculty opinions on this choice require further study. Faculty at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) recently investigated recent opinions by reviewing literature and the grading practices of peer institutions, and by surveying both students and faculty at SIUE. The primary findings of the study indicated that 1) an overwhelming majority of students (83%) are satisfied with SIUE’s current whole letter grading scale, 2) most faculty (59%) favored a change to plus-minus grades, and 3) students and faculty alike noted that accurate reflection of performance was the most important issue to consider when choosing a grading system. Based on the evidence collected, SIUE chose to retain the whole letter grading system for the time being.

ERQ 36.3 March 2013

New Graduate Nurses' Perceived Definition of Critical Thinking During Their First Nursing Experience

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Critical thinking (CT) is a flourishing concept that has been developing throughout the fields of both nursing education and practice. In fact, every person thinks in his or her own way that is varied among individuals; it is the nature of human mankind to do so. Nevertheless, much of our thinking might be subjective, indefinite, limited, conventional or inclusively narrow-minded. CT is an essential expected competency of nurses at all levels of education and practice, and is a required component of nursing programs, including critical care nursing training programs (National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, 2006). Various authors have accentuated the need for nurses to be able to think critically in order to apply the proper theoretical knowledge in their clinical skills, using reasonable judgments in providing high standards of quality patient care. Yet, each author has defined CT in a different way. Luckowski (2003) reported that CT is basically the ability to analyze andappraise evaluations.

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The Impact of Institutional Factors on the Relationship Between High School Mathematics Curricula and College Mathematics Course-Taking and Achievement

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

Meta-analytic methods were used to examine the moderating effect of institutional factors on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and college mathematics course-taking and achievement from a sample of 32 colleges. The findings suggest that the impact of curriculum on college mathematics outcomes is not generally moderated by institutional characteristics such as selectivity and educational profile, providing evidence that the relationships between curriculum and college mathematics outcomes generalize to a range of colleges. The results inform college policies and practices for advising students on mathematics course-taking including enrollment in developmental courses, and high school mathematics curriculum selection.

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The Role of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria Economic Development

Franklin Ohiole Ohiwerei Basil Ogomeziem Nwosu
Ambrose Alli University Ebonyi State University

The researchers tried to ascertain the role of vocational and technical education in the Nigeria economic development using historical survey in analyzing the views of various academic authors in an attempt to inform researchers' on current issues on the field. The research reveals that there was a defect in the curriculum of vocational and technical education programmes in Nigeria. The role of Vocational and Technical Education in the production of skilled manpower cannot be achieved if an efficient and effective teaching and examination is not maintained. No nation can develop without vocational and technical education. The solution to the economic development is total commitment to accepting vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Vocational and Technical Education graduates are not given proper training, therefore, are unable to be engaged in the area of maintenance of roads, pipe water, electricity, refineries, improving the food supplies etc. Conclusion and recommendations were made.

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Think Pair Share: A teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD.
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for patients. Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy that provides students with adequate time to think in order to increase their quality of responses. Students become actively involved in thinking about the concepts presented in their discussion. Ninety one students participated in this study. Forty six (50%) of the participants were included in the control group (Non-TPS) and 45 (50%) were included in the experimental group (TPS). The participants were sophomore-level generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the same Health Assessment nursing course. The HESI critical thinking test was the tool used before (Pretest) and after (posttest) the course to collect data about student's CT skills. The study used a quasi experimental design. The independent sample t test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed a significant increase in CT over time, throughout the 17-week course, with the use of TPS teaching/learning strategy. The results suggest that TPS is an effective strategy to foster CT of nursing students and could be used by educators to foster learners' CT in their courses. The study has significant implications on education, nursing practice, and research.

ERQ 36.2 December 2012

Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

Joohi Lee

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates responded to the survey by recalling their before and after student teaching experiences. A paired t-test was calculated to determine statistical mean differences before and after student teaching on five categories: a) pedagogical content knowledge, b) planning and preparation for instruction, c) classroom management, d) promoting family involvement, and e) professionalism. Mean differences of all of the paired items between pre-and post survey were shown to be statistically significant on all five categories.

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Multisite Studies and Scaling Up in Educational Research

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

A scale-up study in education typically expands the sample of students, schools, districts, and/or practices or materials used in smaller studies in ways that build in heterogeneity. Yet surprisingly little is known about the factors that promote successful scaling up efforts in education, in large part due to the absence of empirically supported theories of scaling up. A literature for scale-up studies in education is growing but is years away from providing research-supported practices in planning and conducting these studies. Following the suggestion of Schneider and McDonald (2006) to import relevant knowledge from other fields into the scale-up literature in education, this paper examines the multisite public health and nursing literature in search of a multidisciplinary knowledge base that can inform scaling up efforts in education. Five strategies and practices identified in these literatures as critical to scaling up success are described.

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The Nexus between the Above-Average Effect and Cooperative Learning in the Classroom

Jennifer E. Breneiser, David M. Monetti and Katharine S. Adams
Valdosta State University

The present study examines the above-average effect (Chambers & Windschitl, 2004; Moore & Small, 2007) in assessments of task performance. Participants completed self-estimates of performance and group estimates of performance, before and after completing a task. Participants completed a task individually and in groups. Groups were self-selected by participants, or randomly assigned by the researchers. Previous research examined the above-average effect in performance self-estimates for individuals, but little has been done examining the above-average effect in group performance. Results indicated robust above-average effects for both individual and group estimates of performance, and these effects were not limited by group type. Furthermore, above-average effects were observed for estimates of performance both before and after completion of the task, suggesting that participants were not more accurate in their post-task estimates. In addition to these data, results of a group-work survey administered to participants are disseminated, suggesting some practical applications for group work in the college classroom setting.

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Field Experience + Inclusive ECE Classrooms = Increased Preservice Teacher Efficacy in Working with Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

Julia T. Atiles and Jennifer L. Jones
Oklahoma State University
Hyunjin Kim
Sungkyunwan University

The current study examined whether field placements within an inclusive classroom are associated with improved preservice teacher's efficacy when working with children with developmental delays or disabilities. Study participants were 165 undergraduate students enrolled in primary teacher education classes at a Midwestern university. Participants responded to a modified version of the Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale. A significant positive correlation between preservice teachers' efficacy of working with children with developmental delays or disabilities and their inclusive field experiences was found. Findings in this study stress the need for undergraduate early childhood education programs to utilize diverse, highly inclusive classrooms in their students' field experiences; not only in the hopes of increasing efficacy, but to also develop the skills and dispositions valued by our profession.

ERQ 36.1 September 2012

The Benefits of Latin?

Lisa R. Holliday

Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the sciences. In and of itself, the study of Latin seems to be a topic of concern primarily within Classics departments. However, given the broad claims that have been made about the benefits of Latin for educational development, it is useful to investigate the role of Latin within elementary and high school curriculums as it relates to learning: does the study of Latin improve cognitive abilities and English skills, including grammar and vocabulary?

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Investigating Social Desirability Bias in Student Self-Report Surveys

Angie L. Miller
Indiana University

The frequent use of student self-report surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors. Correlations between a short social desirability scale and NSSE benchmarks, subscales, and selected items suggest that the majority of scores have no significant relationship with a measure of social desirability. A series of regression models controlling for demographic variables produce similar results. Effect sizes and estimates of explained variance are also discussed. The researcher and the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) conducted a national study in 1989, asking school superintendents their opinions on the topic of collective bargaining: the role of the superintendent, the composition of the board

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Using AMLO to Improve the Quality of Teacher Education Outcomes

Zaid Al-Shammari
Gulf University for Science and Technology

This study aims to find ways to improve learning outcomes in teacher education courses by using an Analysis Model for Learning Outcomes (AMLO). It addresses the improvement of the quality of teacher education by analyzing learning outcomes and implementing curriculum modifications related to specific learning objectives and their effects on student learning and achievement. The learning outcome data of two groups of female students enrolled in an education course were analyzed for comparison. The results indicated significant improvements in learning outcomes for the second group after curriculum modifications were implemented. These results highlight the importance of analyzing learning outcomes for quality improvement in teacher education. This paper discusses some of the benefits of using AMLO in teacher education and other disciplines, and provides recommendations for faculty members, administrations, and researchers.

ERQ 35.4 June 2012

Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

Mahmood Kaddorura MA Collette Williams
College of Pharmacy and Health Services Quincy Medical Center, Quincy MA

Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method. Through the use of a standardized CT (HESI) exam, taken at the beginning and the end of the course, scores were compared for improvement using paired t-tests and a one sample t test. The results demonstrated that the HESI CT test scores identified a statistically significant difference with a larger average score after the intervention of the integration of the case study teaching strategy as compared to the pre-intervention average. The findings have implications for educators to help students develop insight into the usefulness of case studies as a teaching learning method to foster students.

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The Role of the Superintendent And School Board in Collective Bargaining: 1989-2010

William L. Sharp
Ball State University

School superintendents have many roles, and being responsible for collective bargaining is one of those roles in states where collective bargaining is mandatory. This role has changed over the years, and it varies from school district to school district. And, as teacher associations and unions have increased in number and strength, superintendents and boards of education have had to devote more time to the process of negotiations. The researcher and the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) conducted a national study in 1989, asking school superintendents their opinions on the topic of collective bargaining: the role of the superintendent, the composition of the board

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English Language Learners' Educational Resilience and Classroom Learning Environment

Héctor Rivera Hersh C. Waxman Robert Powers
Southern Methodist University Texas A&M University Northern Colorado University

Resilience is an area of research that has important implications for the educational improvement of English Language Learners (ELLs) because it focuses on ELLs who are successful in school despite the presence of adverse conditions such as living in economically- and socially-disadvantaged circumstances. This study compared the classroom and instructional learning environment of 189 fourth- and fifth-grade resilient, average and nonresilient ELLs. Resilient and average students perceived significantly (p < .05) more competition in the classroom than nonresilient students, while nonresilient students and average students perceived their reading classes to be significantly (p < .05) more difficult than resilient students. The classroom observation results revealed that resilient and average students were on task significantly (p < .001) more than nonresilient students.

ERQ 35.3 March 2012

The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

Stanley Aibieyi
University of Benin

The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their inability to produce at installed capacity and maintain the refineries, thereby leading to importation of fuel into the country for local consumption. For improved performance, the employees require administrative and technological training. Based on the observation, the study determined the types of training programme that existed in the Nigeria's Oil Industry, the instruments used for the identification of training and development needs and the factors that influenced selection of staff for training and development. The job performance of staff before and after training, the application of professional knowledge of trained staff and the competence of staff to cope with changes before and after training were also investigated. To achieve these objectives, data were collected with the aid of Nigeria's Oil Industry Training and Development Questionnaire (NOITDQ). A simple random sampling of 400 trained workers were selected from NNPC, Shell and Chevron. The data generated through the instruments were analyzed using percentages and the chi-square (x2) for testing the stated hypotheses. The result of the analysis shows that oil workers were offered training opportunities and that the most patronized type of training programmes were seminar, conference and workshop. Reports by supervisory staff was the most patronized instrument for identifying and selecting staff for training and development needs; nomination of staff for training was based mainly on low job performance. Professional training, educational qualification and vacancy position were major factors that influenced the deployment of staff after training and that political consideration was rarely used for staff deployment. Application of professional knowledge of staff varied significantly in positive terms with training, and there was a significant difference in competence of staff to cope with changes before and after training in favour of post training. It was concluded that training opportunities were offered to staff and that instruments for identification of training needs existed in the oil industry. There were also training and development; training and appropriate deployment had positive effect on job performance and its inherent tasks. Based on these conclusions, recommendations were made for policy options to ensure effective staff training and development. The recommendations include the following: that courses should be organized for staff through seminars, conferences and workshops in favour of technological change and that there should be flexibility in the selection of staff for training without necessarily adhering to seniority and so on.

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Taking a Closer Look at the Impact of Classroom Placement: Students Share Their Perspective from Inside Special Education Classrooms

Jennifer L. Jones Lisa R. Hensley
Oklahoma State University Wayne Township Schools

This study explores the impact of classroom placement on students' self-determination, perception of social support from teachers and classmates, and student-teacher relationships. Participants included 51 middle school and high school students receiving special education services under the ID (intellectual disabilities) category, along with 12 special education teachers. Student and teacher report were utilized in making comparisons between students in "self-contained" classrooms and "resource" classrooms. Results indicate less dependency and greater feelings of self-determination for students in resource rooms. Practical recommendations for improving student outcomes and relationships for students in self-contained classrooms are discussed.

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The Effects of Using Reading Racetracks for Teaching of Sight Words to Three Third-Grade Students with Learning Disorders

Gregory L McGrath T. F. McLaughlin K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University
Wendy Bucknell
Central Valley School District

Those of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks with three 8-year-old students with learning disabilities. All three children were performing well below grade level in reading. A single subject reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing reading racetracks. Corrects responses and errors were recorded using high frequency "No Excuse" word lists used in the school district. All three students showed an increase in sight words learned when the reading racetracks were used. This was replicated each time the reading racetrack procedure was implemented. The applicability of using reading racetracks in the classroom is discussed.

ERQ 35.2 December 2011

Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students

Carol S. Parke Dana Keener
Duquesne University

The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted mean scores on three large-scale achievement tests and adjusted average math grades were significantly higher for the cohort than the non-cohort. In terms of course-taking, larger percentages of cohort versus non-cohort students took advanced math courses in 11th and 12th grades. However, after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and SES, the impact of mobility on the type of math course taken was negligible. The study also examined math coursework over the four years of high school for cohort students. Differences were found across demographic subgroups with regard to the type of courses taken and cumulative math grade point average. Significant gaps were found between the two SES groups for both Black and White students in terms of the percentages of students taking advanced math courses.

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Transformations in HIV Awareness in Nigeria: an Empirical Investigation of Personality and Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Undergraduates

Olukayode Ayooluwa Afolabi Ayobami Adekunle Adesina
Ambrose Alli University

The study observed the influence of neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion and HIV awareness on risky sexual behaviour of Nigerian undergraduates. Two hundred (215) undergraduates in the Faculties of Engineering and Social sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, took part in the research. They consisted of 135 (62.7%) males and 80 females (37.3%). Out of the sample, 115 (53.4%) were from Social sciences while 100 (46.6%) were from Engineering. Three hypotheses were tested. From the results, it was found that there are main significant influences of neuroticism {F(1 211)= 38.55; p< .005} and agreeableness {F(1 211)= 12.89; p< .005} on risky sexual behaviour (RSB). The effect of interaction between neuroticism and agreeableness on RSB was not significant. Also, Engineering undergraduates were found to be engaged more in RSB than their counterparts in Social sciences (t= 2.08, df= 213; p< .05). Apart from these, it was also found that there was a joint influence of gender, religion, extraversion and HIV/AIDS awareness on RSB F(4, 215) = 18.71; p< .01). From here, gender (β= 0.12, p >.05) and religion (β=0.11, p >.05) did not have significant influence on risky sexual behaviour. However, the independent influences of extraversion (β= 0.38, p < .05) and HIV awareness (β= 0.41, p< .05) were significant. The results of the findings were explained and necessary recommendations made too.

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Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

Amy Washington Mardis Dunham
Murray State University

This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting practices during the first year of that child's life. The adolescent participants, ranging in age from 12 to18 years (9 males and 13 females), also completed a self-report measure of psychosocial adjustment. The results indicated that early attachment-promoting parenting practices were associated with psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Attachment Parenting appears to offer a useful protocol for understanding and implementing best practices in early childrearing for parents. Implications for future research are discussed.

ERQ 35.1 September 2011

After-School Elementary School Mathematics Club: Enhancing Achievement and Encouraging Future Teachers

Susan Catapano

Helene J. Sherman

University of Northern Carolina

University of Missouri

Large, urban school districts struggle with many educational factors. A university-school partnership developed an after-school mathematics program to address two issues challenging a local district, increasing the mathematics achievement scores on standardized tests and a variety of other assessments and maintaining a highly qualified teacher workforce. The national turnover rate for teachers is approximately 16% and that rate doubles in urban areas. Related to the turnover rate of teachers is the link researchers report between those changes and the academic success of children in urban schools. Efforts to encourage and retain a prepared, consistent and stable workforce and to building a strong academic foundation early in the K- 12 curriculum have been connected to stemming the escalating high school dropout rate in urban districts.

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Real Homework Tasks: A Pilot Study of Types, Values, and Resource Requirements

Mary Lee Danielson

Bruce Strom

Kathrine Kramer

Carroll University

As the standards and accountability movements have gained momentum and political favor in recent years, a renewed interest in instructional practices intended to promote greater success on standardized tests has been evidenced. One such instructional practice, homework, while certainly not a recent practice, receives both support and criticism and continues to generate passionate discussion among local school policy makers, teachers, and parents. Merits and concerns regarding the assignment of homework have garnered attention in mainstream publications in large part due to widespread public attention to readable sources, including Kohn's The Homework Myth and Bennett and Kalish's (2006) The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It. While arguments associated with homework have been presented and debated throughout the 20th century and have continued into the 21st century, the practice of assigning homework across all grade levels (K-12) continues to be widely accepted and generally expected by administrators, teachers, parents and students. In fact, the practice of assigning homework has come to be regarded as an indicator of high standards and a rigorous curriculum, and has taken on "symbolic value". While arguments for and against the practice of assigning homework persist, homework continues to be assigned on a regular, almost daily basis in most classrooms. Basic homework guidelines have been suggested by researchers and encouraged by school districts for teachers. The guidelines provide teachers with options for appropriate homework assignments based on research. More specific examples are given in the publication.

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Enabling Initiative and Enterprise: Faculty-led Course Redesign in a STEM Discipline

Jay R. Dee

Alan B. Henkin
Jennifer L. Hearne
University Massachusetts-Boston
University Iowa
University Maryland-Eastern Shore

This study focuses on processes and outcomes associated with a faculty grassroots initiative to reform teaching and learning in an introductory chemistry course at a research university. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, the study considers faculty groups and teams as sites and sources of pedagogical change in an effort to improve undergraduate teaching. Second, the study examines the interaction between institutional change initiatives and grassroots faculty reform efforts. Third, the study aims to develop understandings of how outcomes of technology-enhanced reform can serve to alleviate time constraints on science faculty and address problems of faculty role overload.

ERQ 34.4 June 2011

Changing Pattern and Process of High School Dropouts between 1980s and 2000s

Suhyun Suh

Jingyo Suh

Auburn University

Tuskegee University

There has been a general decline in the dropout rate and an increase in the high school completion rate over the last three decades. This research investigates causes for the decline in the dropout rate over the periods using decomposition analysis. Traditional cross-section analysis was inadequate to perform this task. Using the two cohort surveys of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in the 1980s and 2000s, we separated changes in characteristics into two parts: explained change and unexplained change. Results of the research suggest that the common explanations for the characteristic of school dropout account for little of the decline of the rate. Relatively unnoticeable factors such as location and regions contributed to the decline of the dropout rate while socioeconomic, personal, familial factors contributed to increase the dropout rate.

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Improving the Quality of the Girl-Child Education in Nigeria

Amos O. Arowoshegbe

Enoma Anthony
Abrose Alli University, Nigeria

The National population commission of Nigeria estimated the population of Nigeria to be 121 million in the year 2001. Out of this population, women constitute 50 percent. Inspite of this massive size, the Annual Abstract of Statistics reveals that 9.6 million female pupils were registered for the primary school as against 11.9 million male pupils in the year 2004. In 2005 there were 9.9 million female as against 12.1 million males. At the post primary school level, there were 2. 7 million female as against 3.4 million male students in the year 2005. The impact of this discrepancy has left women Vulnerable to poverty, low-self esteem, early marriage and other social problems. It was based on these problems that this paper examined those factors militating against women education in Nigeria and suggested solution on how to solve them. In order to examine this problem, opinion survey involving 420 respondents sample from six departments of the faculty of social science Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma were conducted. The study revealed that parental attitude, Economic factors, social cultural factor among others are factors militating against the education of the girl-child in Nigeria. The paper therefore, recommended that mass media, traditional rulers and women-based institutions under the ministry of women affairs should map out programmes that will support the girl-child education in Nigeria.

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Employing Reading Racetracks and DI Flashcards With and Without Cover, Copy, and Compare and Rewards to Teach of Sight Words to Three Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading

Leah Kaufman

T. F. McLaughlin

K. Mark Derby

Gonzaga University
Theresa Waco         
          Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this study was to study the effect of pairing reading racetracks and flashcards for the teaching of sight words. The first participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading and writing and was also diagnosed with ADHD. The second participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading, writing, math, and social skills.  The third participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading, writing, and math. Data were taken on the number of corrects and errors for select sight words.  A combination multiple baseline with reversals and a generalization probe single case design was employed to evaluate the various interventions. The results for two of the participants indicated that reading racetracks paired with flashcards were quite effective in increasing oral reading of sight words.  For a third participant, the addition of cover, copy, and compare and rewards improved sight word acquisition. A brief generalization probe to new words indicated that the gains in sight words did not generalize to new untrained words.  The applicability of employing data-based decision making with our various interventions was outlined.

ERQ 34.3 March 2011

When Best Intentions Go Awry: The Failures of Concrete Representations to Help Solve Probability Word Problems

Brian D. Beitzel

Richard K. Staley

Nelson F. DuBois

SUNY Oneonta, New York

Previous research has cast doubt on the efficacy of utilizing external representations as an aid to solving word problems.  The present study replicates previous findings that concrete representations hinder college students' ability to solve probability word problems, and extends those findings to apply to a multimedia instructional context.  Our concrete-representation group was instructed in how to use Venn diagrams to solve probability problems involving non-mutually exclusive events; our procedural group was instructed only in the formulation of equations.  Results showed that the procedural group outperformed the concrete-representation group; additionally, there was a main effect for performance on transfer problems, favoring near-transfer problems over far-transfer problems.  Contrary to previous findings, however, in the present study cognitive load did not appear to be a factor in the lower performance of the concrete-representation condition.

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Measuring Practices of Teaching for Social Justice in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

Emilie Mitescu Reagan -- Boston College
Joseph J. Pedulla -- Boston College
Cindy Jong -- Virginia Commonwealth U
Mac Cannady -- Boston College
Marilyn Cochran-Smith-- Boston College

This study used the Teaching for Social Justice Observation Scale (TSJOS) of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol-Plus (RTOP+) to examine the extent to which twenty-two novice elementary teachers implemented practices related to teaching for social justice in their mathematics instruction. In addition, this study sought to examine the extent to which practices related to teaching for social justice were related to pupil learning outcomes, as measured by end-of-unit district-based assessments. We found that, on average, the participants in this study implemented a moderate amount of teaching practices related to teaching for social justice. Furthermore, after correlating the teaching practices with pupil outcomes, we found a significant, positive relationship between teaching for social justice and pupil outcomes (r = 0.44, p<0.05).  We discuss implications of these findings and recommend further use of the TSJOS.

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Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context

J.M. Steur, E.P.W.A. Jansen
W.H.A. Hofman
University Centre for Learning & Teaching, University of Groningen

This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness -- reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning -- are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were administered to students from the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Usability within a research university is determined. The Reflective Thinking Questionnaire and the Task and Win Orientation in Sports Questionnaire were found to be usable but there were problems associated with the Visions of Morality Scale when used in this context. The Research Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and subscales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire require minor adjustments when used within a research university.

ERQ 34.2 December 2010

Tracking: Educational Differentiation or Defective Strategy

George Ansalone
St Johnâ's University

For almost a century, schools have assigned students to various groups or classes based on their perceived academic ability. Referred to as Tracking, in the United States, and Streaming, in England, this organizational differentiation very often results in unequal access to knowledge and the differential treatment of students.  Proponents of tracking contend that it facilitates instruction and promotes the learning of all students.  They suggest that it enables teachers to adjust the content and quantity of the curriculum to the various ability levels of their students.  Notwithstanding the research which underscores the negative impact of tracking on student outcomes, this practice remains pervasive in schools and a number of assumptions support its popularity. This article examines these assumptions in light of existing English and American research to determine, once and for all, if tracking is a positive form of educational differentiation or a defective strategy.

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Trait Validity and Reliability of TAAS Reading Scores: 1994-1999

Jon Lorence
University of Houston

The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test was the major source of data for the Texas educational accountability system from 1994 through 2002. Contrary to critics who claim that TAAS data are invalid and unreliable measures of student performance, structural equation analyses of TAAS reading data based on the 1994 Texas third grade cohort followed through eighth grade indicate that TAAS reading data meet conventional standards of trait validity and reliability. Rather than assume reading performance follows a quasi-simplex models, i.e., test scores in one year largely account for test results in the following year, an alternative conceptualization views each of the annual TAAS reading tests as one indicator of a fairly stable trait of general reading ability. A second-order factor of reading achievement provides a more reasonable fit to the data than a quasi-simplex model. Both quasi-simplex and second-order factor models indicate TAAS reading scores were highly stable from one grade to the next.

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An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

Taik Kim
Ohio State University, Marion

The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in mathematics. To maximize the efficiency of classroom teaching, MEG, a pull-out program, was created to serve students with disorderly behavior but with a strong potential to improve their mathematics skills.
      The pull-out program positively affected other students' achievement in the classroom, too. Overall proficiency level from the Ohio Achievement Test improved from 5.6 % of the previous year to 8.1%, while the district proficiency level decreased from 46.3 % to 38.7 %. The outcome of this research shows that MEG was effective for improving standardized test scores and study habits for the participants. Simultaneously, the setting appeared helpful in correcting students' classroom behavior.

ERQ 34.1 September 2010

"Minimization as an Alternative to Unrestricted Randomization in Educational Research"

Hui-Fang Chen
Missouri State University
Kathy E. Green
University of Denver

This paper describes an alternative to unrestricted randomization in experimental design, termed minimization, which can be used to achieve better balance of critical factors in small to medium-sized experimental studies. Several critical factors are controlled which are known to influence outcomes but which are not the foci of the study. Based on the critical factor values of previously entered participants, a new participant will be allocated into an experimental group to minimize imbalance across groups on critical factors. Minimization has been primarily employed in medical interventions and clinical trials. This article provides examples of the potential use of minimization in education, its advantages, and limitations. Minimization is one possible strategy to attain stronger validity in small to medium-sized experimental studies.

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"Staffing at the Middle School Level: Are the Least Qualified Principals Assigned to the Neediest School Buildings?"

Phillip Young
University of California-Davis
Donald Paul Reimer
Community Youth Ministries, Reedley California
Karen Holsey Young
Fort Miller Middle School Fresno Unified School District

A structural equation modeling approach is used to assess the relationships among human capital endowments of school principals and characteristics of students at the middle school level. Human capital endowments are measured according to education, teacher experience, and administrator experience, while characteristics of students are assessed according to diversity, English language learners, and poverty. Results indicate that high risk students are equally served but not better served. That is, the most qualified principals are not assigned to the neediest school buildings. Consequently, school districts are failing to capitalize on staffing opportunities for principals.

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Classroom Management Competencies of Intern-Teachers in Nigera's Secondary Schools"

Peter Onotevure Ikoya
Delta State Univeristy, Nigeria
Samuel I. Akinseinde
Delta State University, Nigeria

The purpose of the study was to find out the adequacy of the current classroom management training program for intern teachers in Nigerian Universities. Two hundred and six respondents were used for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to seventy males and one hundred and thirty-six females drawn from Arts, Science, Technical and Social Science programmes. Data were analyzed using frequency, mean scores and analysis of variance. Major findings revealed no significant difference in classroom management competencies of male and female interns as regards leadership and discipline but there is significant gender difference in communication competencies. There is variability in classroom management competencies of intern teachers from Arts, Science, Social Science and Technical Education programmes. The intern teachers see classroom discipline as a major problem confronting them.

ERQ 33.4 June 2010

"The Relation Between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers"

Necati Cemaloglu
Sevil Filiz
Gazi University

The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The Time Management Questionnaire was used in the research. The results of the research were analysed by using arithmetical mean, standard deviation, simple correlation, and regression analysis techniques. As a result of the research it was determined that student behaviour in the category of time planning was at the highest level and behaviour in the category of time consumers was at the lowest level. The success of the students was above average. There was a significant and positive relation between time planning and time consumers and the academic achievement of the students; there was a low and positive relation between time consumers and academic achievement; there was a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic achievement. The relative importance order of the predictor variables on academic achievement, according to the standardized regression coefficient, was time consumers, time planning, and time attitude; each of the three variables had an important predictor effect on the academic achievement of the students.

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A Validation Study of an Instrument Designed To Measure Types of Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach"

John Rugutt
Caroline C. Chemosit
Illinois State University

This study reports the results of a validation study of student assessment of types of learning (ToL) scale, a measure of teaching effectiveness based on student summative judgments. The study investigated the factor structure of ToL and how consistent the factor structure held across multiple groups. This study used measures developed by Ellett, Loup, Culross, McMullen and Rugutt, 1997 and data from two independent administrations, involving 1096 and 1536 students from two semesters respectively. The results showed that the overall instrument possesses good internal consistency and adequate construct validity across the two samples. The SEM analyses with LISREL (Jreskog & Srbom, 1996) methodology revealed that ToL consists of 2 latent variables that are stable over time and consistent over different groups.

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Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement"

Terri Phelps
Christian County Schools
Mardis Dunham
Murray State University
Robert Lyons
Murray State University

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program. The program was used in hopes to improve each student's ability in reading fluency. The study used Read Naturally® as an intervention for two struggling readers identified as two third grade students. The program included passage reading and comprehension. The participants were placed in the correct instructional level within the program by determining their age, grade level, reading abilities, and instructional level. The Read Naturally® program followed a multi-step procedure that required the students to read for a minute for a cold read and hot read, read passages aloud, follow along as the passages are read through an audiotape, and answer comprehension questions pertaining to the passages. Data were collected throughout the study to determine if there was an increase in words per minute for each participant from a cold read to a hot read.. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was examined through an ABAB single-subject reversal design. The overall outcomes indicated improved fluency for each student. This improvement from hot to cold reads during the intervention was not found for either participant. Therefore, caution is urged regarding the use of Read Naturally®.