Dedicated to the advancement of the practice of education through research and scholarship.

Educational Research Quarterly
Olatunde Ogunyemi, Editor
PO Box 571
Grambling, LA 71245

Phone: 318-235-3927

Please Note: There is a discrepancy in the date for the June 2016 issue of Educational Research Quarterly. The issue cover should say "June 2016" but instead says "June 2014". We apologize for the error.

ERQ40.3 March 2017

Values and Beliefs Regarding Discipline Practices: How School Culture Impacts Teacher Responses to Student Misbehavior

Julia T. Atiles
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Talley M. Gresham Isaac Washburn
Oklahoma State University

The purpose of this study was to determine whether teachers’ sense of efficacy influences their attitude towards the use of physical punishment in schools. There were two groups of participants in the study: pre-service and in-service early childhood teachers. The sample was made up of 78 in-service teachers from two different school districts and 61 pre-service teachers from a mid-western university early childhood education preparation program. There were multiple significant findings in the study. Teachers who value developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) significantly use non-punitive responses more frequently. Values about corporal punishment and self-efficacy were not related to non-punitive responses. Teachers in the school district that allows principal-approved corporal punishment were less likely to use non-punitive responses. In-service teachers used more punitive responses than the pre-service teachers. However, overall referral to principal for corporal punishment did not seem to be related to teacher efficacy, thus, leading us to believe that teacher efficacy and teachers’ attitudes towards physical punishment are completely unrelated, and may be two different constructs.

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Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Children of Divorced Families and Relations to Teacher Efficacy

Julia T. Atiles
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Mallory I. Oliver Matthew Brosi
Oklahoma State University

Teachers are well-positioned to play a critical role in fostering resiliency in children of divorce and to assist in reducing the risk for adjustment problems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preservice early childhood teachers have the awareness of the stress responses and effects of parental divorce on their students. Early childhood preservice teachers responded to questionnaires that asked about awareness of the effects of a parental divorce on a child and awareness of the stress responses exhibited by a child due to a parental divorce. Results indicate that preservice teachers had moderate awareness about children’s normative stress responses and those who had a high sense of efficacy had a moderate positive correlation with their overall awareness of atypical behaviors in children of divorce. Preservice teachers with personal experience of parental divorce had a lower level of awareness of the stress responses and effects of divorce than those who had not experienced a parental divorce. Participants closer to completing the teacher preparation program had significantly higher awareness of the effects on and stress responses that children can exhibit due to a parental divorce. Discussion and implications for pre-service teachers are presented.

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Mistakes Made By Freshman Students of Science Teaching and Their Reasons During the Proving Process

Burçin GÖKKURT Bartın University
Emrullah ERDEM Adıyaman University
Kani BAŞIBÜYÜK Erzincan University
Ömer ŞAHİN Amasya University
Yasin SOYLU Atatürk University

The aim of this study was to examine the mistakes made by freshman students of science teaching during the process of proving and the reasons for these mistakes. To this aim, the study, which was conducted via the case study method, was performed with 52 freshman students who were studying at the department of science teaching in a state university. A test composed of eight open-ended questions was used for data collection, and non-structured interviews oriented towards identifying the reasons for the mistakes made by the students were conducted with eight students.The content analysis technique was utilised in data analysis. It was found that many of the students made mistakes in terms of method, in other words, they used incorrect methods. In this regard, it was detected that more than half of the students regarded assigning numerical values as a method of proof, whereas a few of them made conceptual mistakes, algorithmic mistakes, misunderstood the questions, etc. Furthermore, it was determined that these mistakes resulted from reasons such as the fact that the students did not have any previous experience related to proof; they regarded assigning numerical values as a method of proof; and their lack of knowledge.

ERQ40.2 December 2016

The Pennsylvania Positive Behavior Support Network: Describing Our Scale-Up

Timothy J. Runge Douglas A. Longwill Mark J. Staszkiewicz
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
James Palmiero Tina M. Lawson
Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network

Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.’s (2010) blueprint to describe and evaluate the large-scale adoption of SWPBIS. That document provides the structure for assessing the context, content, fidelity, impact, and replication of installation efforts. Particular focus of the current review is on context, content, and fidelity of scale-up efforts. Over 600 schools have received training on SWPBIS since 2007, with fidelity of implementation confirmed in approximately 200 of those schools. Sources of support for the expansion of SWPBIS include federal and state grants, resources from regional and state-level allied youth and family-serving agencies, and local contributions. Training and technical assistance is provided by a cadre of certified facilitators who utilize standard training protocols. A statewide conference dedicated to Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports has grown in course offerings and attendance while maintaining high attendee satisfaction. Future directions in Pennsylvania include expanding SWPBIS to more schools, authentically engaging youth and families, including culturally-sensitive training and practices into SWPBIS training and implementation, improving the quality of annual program evaluations, and helping schools install advanced tiers of support.

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Evaluation of Probabilistic Reasoning Evidence from Seventh-graders

Emrullah ERDEM Ramazan GÜRBÜZ
Adıyaman University

The purpose of this study was to evaluate probabilistic reasoning of seventh-grade students (N=167) studying at randomly selected three middle schools that served low and middle socioeconomic areas in a city of Turkey. “Probabilistic Reasoning Test (PRT)” was developed and used as data collection tool. In analyzing the data, participants’ scores of the test were computed and their probabilistic reasoning levels were determined. Sample responses of some students regarding any question (Q14) in the test were presented directly and discussed. Analysis of data showed that most of the participants had medium (30.5%) and high (32.9%) level of probabilistic reasoning. Here, it is possibly inferred that in general terms, the probabilistic reasoning level of the students is medium and high. It can also be suggested that thanks to open ended probabilistic problems that students try to present a solution way instead of focusing on multiple-choice answers, they can reason more often.

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A Meta-Analysis of Video Modeling Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

Elias Clinton
Black Hills State University

Video modeling is a non-punitive, evidence-based intervention that has been proven effective for teaching functional life skills and social skills to individuals with autism and developmental disabilities. Compared to the literature base on using video modeling for students with autism and developmental disabilities, fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of using video modeling based interventions for students with high-incidence disabilities (e.g., specific learning disabilities, emotional/behavioral disorders). This meta-analysis evaluated the utility of using video modeling to decrease disruptive behaviors and increase positive pro-social behaviors of students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Additionally, this paper compiled a list of research gaps related to video modeling and students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Implications for future research directions are discussed.

ERQ40.1 September 2016

New Teaching Techniques to Improve Critical Thinking. The Diaprove Methodology

Carlos Saiz Silvia F. Rivas
University of Salamanca

The objective of this research is to ascertain whether new instructional techniques can improve critical thinking. To achieve this goal, two different instruction techniques (ARDESOS, -group 1- and DIAPROVE, -group 2-) were studied and a pre-post assessment of critical thinking in various dimensions such as argumentation, inductive reasoning, causal, analogic, and deductive reasoning, decision-making and problem-solving was conducted. The results show that both forms of instruction functioned as expected. Both groups improved in all the dimensions of critical thinking. However the group with the new technique was only better in two dimensions with respect to group 1, namely in deductive and inductive reasoning, but not in problem-solving and decision-making. One possible reason accounting for this discrepancy was our inability to implement the new methodology in all dimensions, such that it was applied where there was greater improvement in group 2 than in group 1. The implications of this study are important because they allow us to know which new variables are crucial for instructional methodology.

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Increasing Reading Fluency using Read Naturally® with Two Third Grade Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: A Replication of Erickson et al., 2015

Sarah V. Morgan T. F. McLaughlin Kimberly P. Weber
Gonzaga University
Barbara Bolich Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program. The program was used in hopes to improve each student's ability in reading fluency. The study used Read Naturally® as an intervention for two struggling readers identified as two third grade students. The program included passage reading and comprehension. The participants were placed in the correct instructional level within the program by determining their age, grade level, reading abilities, and instructional level. The Read Naturally® program followed a multi-step procedure that required the students to read for a minute for a cold read and hot read, read passages aloud, follow along as the passages are read through an audiotape, and answer comprehension questions pertaining to the passages. Data were collected throughout the study to determine if there was an increase in words per minute for each participant from a cold read to a hot read.. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was examined through an ABAB single-subject reversal design. The overall outcomes indicated improved fluency for each student. This improvement from hot to cold reads during the intervention was not found for either participant. Therefore, caution is urged regarding the use of Read Naturally®.

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Getting More Out of Educational Workshop Evaluations: Positively Packing the Rating Scale

Joni M. Lakin Shankharupa Chaudhuri
Auburn University

Collecting evaluations following a professional development workshop and similar events has become common practice for assessing workshop quality. However, these evaluation forms often do not reflect best practices in survey development and result in average ratings that are uniformly high and uninformative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rating scales on workshop evaluations using an experimental design where participants were randomly assigned one of four evaluation forms with different rating scales following workshops. We found that using a typical "poor to excellent" scale yielded the highest average (most homogeneous) ratings while scales that were off-centered, with more positive than negative scale points (positively packed), yielded ratings with more variability. Recommendations for designing workshop evaluations are provided.

ERQ39.4 June 2016

Academic Achievement and Extracurricular School Activities of At-Risk High School Students

Ryan Marchetti S. Marshall MS
Randal H. WilsonMardis Dunham
Murray State University

This study compared the employment, extracurricular participation, and family structure status of students from low socioeconomic families that achieved state-approved benchmarks on ACT reading and mathematics tests to those that did not achieve the benchmarks. Free and reduced lunch eligibility was used to determine SES. Participants included 211 high school seniors from a large, rural southeastern high school. Eighty five of the participants met the low SES criterion and were the study’s primary focus. The study found that at-risk students from low SES families that met ACT reading and mathematics benchmarks were more likely to participate in extracurricular activities than students that did not meet this benchmark. Unexpectedly, students who met the reading benchmark were statistically less likely to have both parents employed. Student employment status and family structure were not statistically associated with ACT performance. Implications and areas for future study are discussed.

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Grading Rigor in Counselor Education: A Specifications Grading Framework

Matthew W. Bonner
Lenoir-Rhyne University

According to accreditation and professional bodies, evaluation and grading are a high priority in counselor education. Specifications grading, an evaluative tool, can be used to increase grading rigor. This article describes the components of specifications grading and applies the framework of specifications grading to a counseling theories course.

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Effects of Pre-service Teacher Learning and Student Teaching on Teacher Education

Maadi M. AlAjmi Mohammed D. Al-Dhafiri Zaid N. Al-Shammari
Kuwait University

The purposes of this research were to investigate and examine the effects of pre-service teacher learning and student teaching on teacher education. Three hundred and ten out of 349 intentionally selected participants responded to a two-dimensional survey. The gender, nationality, marital status, age, and academic year had no significant effects, but pre-service teacher learning (71%) and student teaching (75%) had significant influential effects on teacher education. In two academic majors (English education and geology education), pre-service teacher learning, student teaching, and teacher education had significant influential effects. In light of our results, the discussion addresses the influential effects found in this research compared to previous research findings and makes recommendations both for administrators in the University's teacher-education programs and for future research intended to improve the quality of teacher-education programs through the development of and/or improvements to pre-service teacher learning and student teaching as complementary components of teacher education.

ERQ39.3 March 2016

Survey of Developmental Students’ Print and Online Metacognitive Reading

Mary Keller Boudreaux
University of Memphis

This quantitative study is a comparative analysis of developmental students’ print and online support metacognitive strategy use. More specifically, a study was conducted utilizing the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) to measure developmental college students’ awareness and perceived use of support reading strategies while comprehending print and online academic texts. The findings show significance in four of nine support metacognitive reading strategy uses.

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The Cultural Intelligence Level Among International Students In Jordanian Universities

Abdelnaser Al-Jarrah
Yarmouk University

This study investigated the level of cultural intelligence among international students and whether significant statistical differences could be found in their cultural intelligence at the level (α = 0.05) due to the students’ gender and the nationality. To achieve the study aims, a cultural intelligence scale were adopted (Yordonova, 2011). The scale consisted of 20 items distributed on a four\subscale. The study sample consisted of 169 male and female students from various nationalities, purposefully selected from a group enrolled in teaching Arabic for non-native speakers’ program in the language centers of the University of Jordan and Yarmouk University in the second semester of 2012/2013 academic year. The study results revealed that the students' cultural intelligence level was high. The results also showed that no statistical significant differences existed due to gender. Statistical differences were found, however, due to nationality in the favor of American students.

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Increasing Social Interactions Using Prompts and Rewards for Adolescents with ASD in an Ice Hockey Practice Context

Kevin Beiers K. Mark Derby T. F. McLaughlin
Gonzaga University

We evaluated the effects of using prompts and reinforcement procedures to increase the social interaction of two children with autism (ASD). This study took place during the context of a hockey practice. Two adolescent participants were evaluated using an ABAB single subject reversal design. Baseline data were collected prior to and after the implementation of a treatment phase. During baseline, the social interactive behavior of participants was measured. The participants engaged in vey low levels of social interaction. During treatment, the instructor applied prompting and reinforcement with the participants and social interaction was measured. The results indicate that social interaction of our participants can be increased during the hockey practice through the use of prompting and reinforcement.

ERQ39.2 December 2015

Establishing Groups in the College or University Classroom: Using VIEW to Form Better Cooperative Groups and Improve Learning Outcomes

Stephen T. Schroth Jason A. Helfer
Towson University Illinois State Board of Education
Mary A. Crawford Jessie D. Dixon Helen M. Hoyt
Knox College

Six classes at a selective liberal arts college in the Midwest, two each in chemistry, educational studies, and Spanish, used cooperative groups as part of the students’ learning experiences. One class from each discipline used VIEW to formulate these cooperative groups, while those that constituted the control groups used more traditional ways of creating groups. At the end of each class, all students were given a survey asking them to evaluate various aspects of their experiences with group activities. Those students whose groups had been formed using data from VIEW reported statistically significant differences in their satisfaction with their group experiences, especially with regard to attention the group gave to new ideas, preferences for the level of structured authority, how information was handled by the group, and the balance between task concerns and personal or interpersonal needs when making decisions.

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Flipped @ SBU: Student Satisfaction and the College Classroom

Benjamin Gross Mike Hoffman
Maddalena Marinari Kimberly DeSimone
Peggy Burke

Saint Bonaventure University

In this paper, the authors find empirical support for the effectiveness of the flipped classroom model. Using a quasi-experimental method, the authors compared students enrolled in flipped courses to their counterparts in more traditional lecture-based ones. A survey instrument was constructed to study how these two different groups of students varied in terms of student engagement, student satisfaction, and academic performance. Overall, we found that high levels of student engagement and course satisfaction characterized the students in the flipped courses, without any observable reduction in academic performance.

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Kentucky Principal Perceptions of the State’s New Teacher Evaluation System: A Survey Analysis

Richard L. Dodson, Ed.D
Murray State University

This research examines how public school principals in Kentucky perceive their new teacher evaluation system and the proficiency exam they must take and pass in order to evaluate their staff. An online survey was developed and 308 out of an estimated 1,100 working school principals across Kentucky responded, yielding a response rate of 28%. Results showed that most Kentucky principals were not happy with the new teacher evaluation system and the proficiency test they must take. Responses suggested an average of three changes they would make to the evaluation system or the proficiency test; positive comments were rare. Targets for improvement include the software system used to enter teacher evaluations, the evaluation’s student growth goals and student voice section, and more training from the state on how to use the new evaluation instrument. A majority of the principals might leave their job earlier than planned because of having to implement the new evaluation instrument; most also might leave earlier than planned because of the increased number of teacher evaluations they have to perform as part of the system or because of the increased emphasis on test scores in teachers’ evaluations. Most respondents, however, agreed that using the new evaluation system has improved their school’s instructional program and that the new instrument is preferable to their old teacher evaluation instrument. Most respondents felt unprepared to implement the new evaluation system.

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ERQ39.1 September 2015

An Evaluation of Read Naturally® on Increasing Reading Fluency for Three Primary Students with Learning Disabilities

Janna Erickson K. Mark Derby T. F. McLaughlin
Gonzaga University
Katrina Fuehrer
East Valley School District

The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the reading fluency program Read Naturally®. This program employs passage reading and comprehension questions. These are graded at various instructional levels (kg. to adult). The program employs several practice procedures such as passage reading along with a pre-recorded audiotape, reading the passage independently, and finally reading the same passage again to an adult. The participants were two, third graders (one boy and one girl), and a fourth grade boy. Data were collected on the correct words read orally per minute across various lessons. These data were gathered in the elementary school’s resource room and taken daily. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was evaluated with a multiple-baseline design. Our overall outcomes indicated that there was little change in correct words read per minute without practicing the passage (a cold read) and a large increase in correct words read after practice (a hot read). The results suggest that the procedure of repeated practice with an audiotape and practicing independently are effective procedures for increasing words read per minute. While the present outcomes were positive, further research is warranted regarding the efficacy of the Read Naturally® in the schools.

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Instruments to Measure Elementary Preservice Teachers’ Conceptions: An Application of the Rasch Rating Scale Model

Cindy Jong Thomas E. Hodges
University of Kentucky University of South Carolina
Kenneth D. Royal Rachael M. Welder
North Carolina State University Western Washington University

This article reports on the development of the Mathematics Experiences and Conceptions Surveys (MECS), a pair of comprehensive instruments designed to measure elementary preservice teachers’ dispositions, attitudes, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. In addition to conceptions, MECS aim to capture elementary preservice teachers’ related mathematical experiences at various benchmark stages in teacher education programs. The Rasch Rating Scale Model is used to examine the psychometric properties of MECS instruments and to establish six scales that are capable of producing reliable and valid measures. Finally, we present an illustration of how MECS might be used within elementary mathematics teacher preparation.

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The effects of argumentatıon based scıence learnıng approach on creatıve thınkıng skılls of students

Bayburt University Atatürk University

The aim of this study is to explore the effects of argumentation based science learning (ABSL) approach on 9th Grade of Secondary Education students' creative thinking skills. The sample of the study included 22 9th grade of Secondary Education students in Bayburt in 2012-2013 academic year. In this study quantitative research method and pretest-posttest experimental design was adopted. As a data collection tool Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking Verbal-Figural Form A was used and the collected data were evaluated by using SPSS program (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). While evaluating data, t-test was used for the sub-dimensions with normal distribution, whereas Wilcoxon test was used for the sub-dimensions not with normal distribution. The results of analysis showed that argumentation based science learning approach has a positive effect on creative thinking skills of students'. At the beginning and end of semester, Torrance test analysis showed that there is a significant difference in favor of the posttest. Furthermore, according to the sub-dimensions of Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking Verbal/Figural Form A, significant differences were found for Verbal Form A all sub-dimensions. While significant differences were not found between pretest and posttest results for the sub-dimensions of elaboration, synthesis of incomplete figures and emotional expressiveness, significant differences were found for the rest of sub-dimensions in favor of the posttest. In addition, it was observed that critical discussion skills of students were developed in the process.

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ERQ38.4 June 2015

Formulating Good Open-Ended Questions in Assessment

Gila Shilo Kfar Saba, Israel
Beit Berl Academic College

The purpose of the study was to examine the quality of open test questions directed to high school and college students. One thousand five hundred examination questions from various fields of study were examined using criteria based on the writing centers directions and guidelines. The 273 questions that did not fulfill the criteria were analyzed in this study. The commonest mistakes found were: inappropriate usage of action verbs (66%); errors in formulation (13.1%) and the use of titles instead of questions (9.5%). In my opinion, the two most important findings of the study are the high percentage of inappropriate use of action verbs and inadequate number of points given to questions, since these findings were not described previously. The study results suggest that training teachers in question-writing should be incorporated in the curriculum for pre-service and in-service teachers. Various ways of composing more coherent test questions are described after presenting and discussing the mistake types.

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The Effect Using the REWARDS® Reading Program on Vowel Sounds, Word Part, and Prefix and Suffix Identification in Multi-Syllabic Words: A Case Report

Isabelle C. Klee Sarah M. Brasch Jennifer Neyman
Isabelle C. Klee
Gonzaga University
Sue Stookey
Spokane Public Schools

Proficiency, accuracy and fluency in reading is an essential part of nurturing a disposition towards learning, growth and continued education for any student who wishes to be successful in school. Many studies have assessed the efficiency and success of various reading programs that have been developed to improve these areas of reading proficiency. The REWARDS® Program is one such example. This program works to increase a student’s ability to decode multisyllabic words using specific strategies including vowel sound, word part, and prefix and suffix recognition. REWARDS® can be used as intervention elementary to high school, and with students in both general and special education settings. This study was performed by two undergraduate students at a high school in the Pacific Northwest and assesses the progress of a 14-year-old-female participant who was diagnosed with a specific learning disorder in reading skills. The study tracks the development of the participant’s reading skills through the use of the REWARDS Program. Through this study, there was clear evidence that the REWARDS Program had a positive impact on the student’s ability to decode multisyllabic words.

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A Modified Delphi Study to Define Ah ha Moments in Education Settings

Jobeth Pilcher
Capella University

Ah ha moments are often mentioned in education literature. These moments are suggested to be a powerful aspect of learning, yet limited research is present regarding this topic. Ah ha learning moments have also not been defined in the education literature, resulting in the likelihood that each educator and learner may have differing definitions. Before studies can be conducted to seek out educational strategies to promote these learning moments, a clear definition is needed. This article presents the results of a modified Delphi study aimed at seeking a consensus definition of ah ha learning moments among a group of experts from varied education settings.

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ERQ38.3 March 2015

The Effects of a Modified Cover, Copy, Compare on Spelling Tests and in Written Compositions for Three Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Ashley Goodman T. F. McLaughlin K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University
Mary Everson
Spokane Public Schools

Spelling skills are vital in teaching students to read and write effectively. One method to help students learn to spell words correctly is called cover, copy, and compare (CCC). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of using CCC on the spelling and writing skills of three students with learning disabilities. These skills were measured both before and after implementation of CCC spelling intervention. When CCC was in effect, our participants spelled more words correctly on spelling test probes. Generalization of correct spelling on a writing samples was found. The students reported they enjoyed using CCC.

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Pathways to Teaching: An Examination of Black Females' Pursuits of Careers as K-12 Teachers

Abiola A. Farinde
University of Pittsburgh
Jennifer K. LeBlanc Amanda S. Otten
Texas A&M University

White, female, middle-class teachers dominate the education field. As a result, Black female teachers are underrepresented in the teaching field. Statistically, Black female teachers represent 7.7% of the United States teaching force, while White female teachers make up over 60% of the American teaching workforce. With the aim of diversifying the teaching pool, this phenomenological study explored the lived K-12 and collegiate educational experiences of Black female in-service teachers in order to gain insight about their vocational choices to become educators. Constant comparative data analysis revealed four major themes. The results of this study have implications for teacher education programs and educational policy.

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Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

Al-Hroub A

This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role that parents play in preventing Palestinian students from dropping out of school. Based on qualitative field data, the methodology is grounded in tracking the trajectories of five drop-out cases. These five cases were drawn from four carefully selected United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools in Lebanon. The cases provide ethnographic accounts of the risk factors underlying students’ dropping out of school in these communities. Attention is paid to important issues, including socio-economic status, school curriculum and services, corporal punishment, and family involvement. The conclusion of this paper looks toward developing a plan to address the rate of early school drop-out in Palestinian refugee camps based on the findings of this report.

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ERQ38.2 December 2014

Analysis of the Mathematical Proof Skills of Studens of Science Teaching

Burçin Gökkt
Yasin Soylu
Atatürk Universiy

Ömer Şahin
Amasya University

Mathematics and proof are two closely related concepts. Mathematics not only shows what is right or wrong, but it also teaches that it is not enough to know the latest formulas and results should be explained with causality. In this context, students learn the underlying meaning behind what mathematicians do by way of proofs. Accordingly, this study aims to analyse the mathematical proof skills of students studying science teaching. The study group is composed of 50 first-year college students studying science teaching in the academic year 2011-2012. The study employs case study method as a form of qualitative research and six open-ended questions are used for data gathering purposes. The obtained data show that students successfully employ mathematical proof methods (induction, deduction etc.), but the majority of the students accepted the technique of giving a numerical value as a method of proof.

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Cross-sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledg

Ismail Yuksel
Eskisehir Osmangazi University

Elif Yasin
TOBB University of Economics and Technology

The current study aims to identify the language teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) survey. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the scale was .90. The data of the study were analyzed via descriptive statistics, t-test and one-way analysis of variance test. Findings indicated that the participating language teachers had average competency levels in TPACK. Results also suggested that teachers’ TPACK scores were not significantly different in terms of gender or work place. However, teachers who had five years or less of teaching experience had higher scores in TPACK than the other groups.

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A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

Edward B. Westermann
Texas A&M University-San Antonio

This paper examines an alternate approach to the “flipped” classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction along with collaborative techniques. The use of flipping has largely been tied to the incorporation of video technology either in the form of a student practicum or an instructor lecture via on-line delivery combined with a classroom meeting involving collaboration and/or application exercises in the face-to-face session. With respect to flipping the history classroom, this paper offers the results from an upper division history course in which historical primary sources were introduced in the on-line portion of a hybrid class. The use of the primary sources also included a bi-modal collaborative mechanism, since students collaborated by sharing their thoughts prior to class and the start of the class incorporated a student-centered collaborative exercise based on the primary sources. This collaborative discussion on the primary sources served as the gateway into the broader topic discussion. This paper describes this process and uses student feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of this methodological approach.

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ERQ38.1 September 2014

Girl-child education outcomes: A case study from Ghana

Frank S. Arku Emmanuel N. Angmor Isaac K. Tetteh
Presbyterian U College

The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana’s girl-child educational project.

According to the findings, the project has helped to improve the girls’ confidence level and performance in examination. They associated more with their colleagues from affluent homes, and the financial burdens on their parents were also lessened. However, more girls need to be supported and boys with the same socio-economic backgrounds of the girls also need to be assisted by such educational projects/programs.

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Student Motives for Taking Online Courses in Educational Administration

Theodore J. Kowalski David Dolph
University of Dayton
I. Phillip Young
University of South Carolina

This study was conducted with students enrolled in a master’s degree program in educational administration at a private research university that offered all required courses in both online and in-class formats. The purposes were to determine (a) the extent to which online courses were selected, (b) the level of importance students placed on four common motives for taking online courses, and (c) levels of association between the importance of values and two demographic variables (employment level and years of teaching experience). The extent to which students took online courses varied considerably. Convenience and flexibility were the most important motives and instructional preference was the least important motive. Although associations between each motive and the two demographic variables were small, the correlation coefficients for convenience and teaching experience and for flexibility and teaching experience were slightly higher than the others.

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Not so fast my friend: The rush to R and the need for rigorous evaluation of data analysis and software in education

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

Commercial data analysis software has been a fixture of quantitative analyses in education for more than three decades. Despite its apparent widespread use there is no formal evidence cataloging what software is used in educational research and educational statistics classes, by whom and for what purpose, and whether some programs should be recommended over others. This paper argues that the rise of the R data analysis software has intensified the need for rigorous evaluations of these programs to identify their strengths and weaknesses in ways that provide educators with guidance in choosing programs. Examples of research activities to produce a literature to guide these choices are described.

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ERQ37.4 June 2014

The Relationship between Library Use and Academic Achievement of English and Spanish-Speaking Hispanic American Students

Hae Seong Park Jenny Yau
Azusa Pacific University

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between school library use and academic achievement of Hispanic students. This study utilizes data from the base-year and the first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. A series of hierarchical regression analysis is incorporated to examine the nature of associations among the variables in this research. The results indicate that Hispanic students’ school library usage for class has a positive relationship with academic achievement, while their library usage for entertainment has a negative relationship with academic achievement. However, effect size of the students’ library usage on academic achievement is greater for Spanish speaking Hispanic students than for English speaking Hispanic students. Implications for researchers and practice are discussed.

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Why Did The Black-White Dropout Gap Widen in the 2000s?

Suhyun Suh Ashley Malchow
Auburn University
Jingyo Suh
Tuskegee University

This research investigates causes of the widening Black-White gap in dropout rates during the 2000s using two cohorts of National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, NLSY79 and NLSY97. The authors found four factors which contributed to the widening of the Black-White gap: school suspension policies, peer impact, fatherless households, and the student-teacher relationship. Logistic regression and decomposition analysis suggests that the gap would have been narrowed by 2.62% if all conditions had remained the same. This implies that factors that have been considered to impact the Black-White gap in the past do not fully explain the current racial gap. Ongoing and potential societal changes demand a new research model to understand the racial gap.

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Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky’s Principal Preparation Program

Richard L. Dodson
Murray State University

This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were emailed to school principals across Kentucky; the response rate was 30% (263 of 900 principals). Most respondents completed field experiences as part of their PPPs, and they considered many of these field experiences to have been valuable learning tools. Of those who did not complete field experiences, nearly all agreed that they would have been better prepared for school leadership had they performed field experiences. Current principals identified the most valuable field experiences to be those involving practical, hands-on, typical principal responsibilities (key words were leading, identifying, interviewing, and working). Least useful were observation-type experiences. This research finds clear support for augmenting use of two particular types of field experiences: (1) Budget and Finance and (2) Site-Based Decision Making. This research also shows the clear practical value of making field experiences an integral part of PPPs. In light of recent criticism that PPPs fail to adequately “ready” school principals, this research offers clear prescriptions for PPP improvement and highlights areas in which Kentucky’s PPPs succeed.

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ERQ37.3 March 2014

A Multisite Study of High School Mathematics Curricula and the Impact of Taking a Developmental Mathematics Course in College

Michael Harwell Danielle Dupuis Thomas R. Post
Brandon LeBeau Amanuel Medhanie
University of Minnesota

The relationship between high school mathematics curricula and the likelihood of students who enroll in a developmental (non-credit bearing) course in college taking additional mathematics courses was studied. The results showed that high school mathematics curriculum, years of high school mathematics completed, and ACT mathematics scores were related to developmental mathematics course-taking, but curriculum was not related to the subsequent mathematics course-taking of students who began college with developmental mathematics. The results have important implications for educational researchers and policymakers at the college and high school levels.

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Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

Julia T. Atiles Nikole Dominique-Maikell
Oklahoma State University

Kathleen McKean
Oklahoma Technical Assistance Center

The use of concept maps in early childhood and primary education is not new. Educators have utilized concept maps as instructional and learning tools. Nancy Gallenstein (2003) defines a concept map as a “graphic/visual representation of concepts that shows various relationships between concepts” (p.82). The literature has documented that concept maps can be used to encourage inductive reasoning and critical thinking (Gallenstein, 2003); illustrate relationships among themes (Workman & Anziano, 1994); organize knowledge (Berionni & Baldón, 2006); help children represent what they know and what they are thinking (Birbili, 2006); teach scientific language to kindergarteners (Mancinelli, Gentili, Priori & Valitutti, 2004); and enhance preschooler’s knowledge gains by facilitating metacognitive thinking (Cassata & French, 2006). The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce concept maps as a methodology in quantitative research with young children as the research participants. While Bannister and Atkinson (1998) used concept mapping as an assessment tool, Birbili (2006) established that teachers can useconcept maps as an evaluation tool of pre-existing knowledge and misconceptions. Hough, O’Rode, Terman, and Weissglass (2007) successfully presented a methodology to quantify the differences between a pre- and post- assessment utilizing concept maps. Concept maps are easy to use and provide information regarding whether a treatment, such as a lesson on a subject, participation in a workshop, or an experience, results in the changes of the subject’s knowledge about content and/or pedagogy.

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Lower Response Rates on Alumni Surveys Might Not Mean Lower Response Representativeness

Amber D. Lambert Angie L. Miller
Indiana University

The purpose of this research is to explore some possible issues with response representativeness in alumni surveys. While alumni surveys can provide important information, they often have lower response rates due to bad contact information and other reasons. In this study we investigate potential differences between responses on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) from the cohorts of graduating seniors from 2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 and those same cohorts of alumni responding to the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project (SNAAP) in 2010 at six diverse institutions. A series of chi-squared analyses were done for each of the six cohort years. Findings indicate that the demographic characteristics and institutional satisfaction of alumni respondents closely mirror those of the graduating seniors. The results from this study suggest that even though response rates on alumni surveys might be lower, the results may be just as representative as studies with much higher response rates.

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ERQ37.2 December 2013

The benefits of utilizing child life specialists when dealing with pediatric stress

Mahmoud Kaddoura Thomas R. Post
Katie Cormier Joshua Leduc
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Introduction: In pediatric hospitals there are varying opinions regarding who is part of the healthcare team. Each specialty has a different view on the various aspects of care.
Objective: The study explores healthcare providers’ diverse points-of-view on stress and compares coping strategies to obtain the most effective way to reduce stress in pediatric patients with a chronic condition.
Method: The study used a qualitative research design. The sample population included six nurses and five child life specialists who have significant experience in pediatrics. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. To identify common themes, a content/data analysis was performed.
Results: Six themes were recognized and led to the identification of differences and similarities between nurses and child life specialists, both of whom reported fear of the unknown as the biggest stressor for the pediatric patient. The act of healthcare workers lying to the child as an attempt to reduce stress on the child was reported as an ineffective coping strategy. Nurses reported crying as a symptom of stress, while child life specialists reported crying as an effective coping strategy. The care of a child coping under stress needs to be a collaborative group effort. Most professionals reported that situations would have been conducted more efficiently if better communication had been in place. Family-centered care was perceived as valuable for improving pediatric patient coping mechanisms.
Implications: The discovered data help to identify the importance of collaborating with all available resources to obtain the best care possible for patients. This article provides effective coping strategies to care for patients. It will help nurses and other healthcare professionals understand how child life specialists help chronically-ill patients cope effectively with stress.

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Enhancing Basic Academic Skills with Audio-Recordings: A Review of the Literature

Emily P. Taylor Christopher H. Skinner
The University of Tennessee

Elizabeth McCallum Brian C. Poncy
Duquesne University Oklahoma State University
Mike Orsega
University of West Georgia

Because teacher-to-student ratios often make it difficult for teachers to work individually with students on skill-building activities, educators and researchers have developed and evaluated procedures in which audio-recordings are used to improve basic academic skills. In the current paper, we describe and analyze reading, math, and spelling interventions that use audio-recordings to prompt and pace rapid rates of accurate responding. In this review, we provide evidence of internal and external validity of easy-to-use, low-tech, recorded interventions across students (general education students and students with disabilities) and contexts (e.g., individually administered and class-wide). Discussion focuses on future theoretical research related to causal mechanisms and applied research on modifying recorded interventions to enhance learning rates.

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A Comparison of Student Ratings in Traditional and Interactive Television Courses

Morgan McCall
Livingston County (KY) Schools
Mardis Dunham Robert Lyons
Murray State University

Although interactive television (ITV) allows colleges and universities to reach a wider audience, little research has been conducted exploring the effectiveness of the courses as perceived by students. This study compared student ratings of teacher effectiveness between 331 traditional courses and 125 ITV courses. The data included 456 graduate level courses over six contiguous semesters. Results clearly favored the traditional courses, followed by perceived effectiveness of the instructor at the ITV sending site and the ratings at the ITV receiving site. Implications for the use of ITV are discussed.

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ERQ37.1 September 2013

Educators’ Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

Carlos Gomez-Garibello Christine Saykaly
Kelsey Moore Victoria Talwar
McGill University

The majority of research investigating children’s lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals’ abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators’ abilities to evaluate the veracity of children’s reports of bullying. In this study, educators’ abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying and educators’ confidence ratings of their abilities to detect the veracity of children’s bullying accounts were examined. Participants (93 educators) were shown video clips of children (between the age of 4 and 8 years) telling true and false statements about being bullied. Participants were asked to assess the veracity of the child’s bullying statement and rank how confident they felt about their responses. Overall, educators’ ability to detect both true and false accounts of bullying was not significantly above chance levels. Regardless of reported years of experience with children, detection rates were approximately the same; educational professionals with fewer years of experience yielded similar detection rates to those with more experience. In general, educators were not very confident in their abilities to distinguish between children’s true and false reports. However, all educators were significantly more confident in their overall ratings of false stories than true stories. While educators are not accurate in detecting deception, the current findings suggest that they may be over confident when assessing false accounts of bullying; condemning students that are falsely accused of bullying could have negative consequences for student, their classmates, and for the teacher. Through understanding educators’ perceptions of children’s lie-telling behavior, especially with respect to bullying, appropriate and effective bullying interventions can be developed by school psychologists in collaboration with educators.

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Nonfiction Reading Comprehension in Middle School: Exploring in Interactive Software Approach

Evelyn S. Wolff Harriet Isecke
Mtelegence Corporation
Christopher Rhoads John P. Madura
University of Connecticut-Neag School of Education

text are well documented. Middle school students, in particular, have minimal instruction in comprehending nonfiction and flounder on assessments. This article describes the development process of the Readorium software, an interactive web-based program being developed to assist students with comprehension of science text. The program incorporates research-based recommendations for effective reading comprehension suggested by the Institute of Education Science (IES). Efforts to turn the IES recommendations into a coherent software product that motivates learners are described, as is the process of incorporating student and teacher feedback to improve the usability of the product. Preliminary results suggest that the program operates efficiently, motivates students, and may substantially impact student comprehension of science text.

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Graduate Students’ Expectations of an Introductory Research Methods Course

Mark A. Earley
Bowling Green State University

While there is a scattered literature base on teaching research methods courses, there is very little literature that speaks to what and how students learn in research methods courses. Students are often described as coming to the course not seeing its relevance, bringing negative attitudes and low motivation with them. The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate graduate student attitudes toward research, expectations of an introductory research methods course, and any relationship between the two. A total of 117 students completed the Attitudes Toward Research scale and a series of open-ended questions. Results indicate these graduate students actually came in with moderate to high positive attitudes toward research and mixed expectations about what the course would entail. Students expected research methods to be difficult, but they did not report much anxiety related to research. Implications for teaching and future research are discussed.

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No pending national elections, who cares? What newspaper publications reveal about local efforts towards Millennium Development Goal 3.

Frank S. Arku Cynthia Arku
Presbyterian University College University of Alberta

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana’s prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles pertaining to addressing gender disparity at all levels of education and their sources. Also, we compared the rural and urban geographical emphasis of the articles. Findings demonstrated that primary level of education received the largest emphasis with the least number of writings on tertiary education. The articles were mainly authored by NGOs, politicians and education practitioners, and the majority referenced rural communities. It appeared that national elections influenced the frequency of the articles that The Daily Graphic published over the review period. We conclude that monitoring systems are central to keeping governments on track. Similarly, efforts that encourage the public to make their voice heard by frequently sending in articles can keep the state and other development agencies continually challenged and motivated until they deliver on their promises.

ERQ36.4 June 2013

Think Pair Share: A teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students’ Critical Thinking

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for patients. Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy that provides students with adequate time to think in order to increase their quality of responses. Students become actively involved in thinking about the concepts presented in their discussion. Ninety one students participated in this study. Forty six (50%) of the participants were included in the control group (Non-TPS) and 45 (50%) were included in the experimental group (TPS). The participants were sophomore-level generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the same Health Assessment nursing course. The HESI critical thinking test was the tool used before (Pretest) and after (posttest) the course to collect data about student's CT skills. The study used a quasi experimental design. The independent sample t test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed a significant increase in CT over time, throughout the 17-week course, with the use of TPS teaching/learning strategy. The results suggest that TPS is an effective strategy to foster CT of nursing students and could be used by educators to foster learners’ CT in their courses. The study has significant implications on education, nursing practice, and research.

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The Effects of Cover, Copy, and Compare to Teach Spelling to Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities and OHI

Elizabeth Hochstetler
T. F. McLaughlin
K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University

Michelle Kinney
Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of cover, copy, and compare (CCC) on the spelling performance of three male middle school students. Two of the participants had learning disabilities and the third was health impaired. The study was conducted in a public school resource room in the Pacific Northwest. A multiple-baseline across word lists was employed to assess the efficacy of CCC. The behavior measured was correct spelling. The results showed mastery of spelling words following the implementation of CCC. The students and staff enjoyed the procedure and suggestions for additional research with CCC are discussed.

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Student and Faculty Perceptions on Plus-Minus Grading: A Case Study

Ryan N. Fries, Jamie Conklin
Jessica S. Krim Deborah A. Smith
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

The decision of higher education institutions to grade student performance with whole letters or with pluses and minuses has many factors. In particular, student and faculty opinions on this choice require further study. Faculty at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE) recently investigated recent opinions by reviewing literature and the grading practices of peer institutions, and by surveying both students and faculty at SIUE. The primary findings of the study indicated that 1) an overwhelming majority of students (83%) are satisfied with SIUE’s current whole letter grading scale, 2) most faculty (59%) favored a change to plus-minus grades, and 3) students and faculty alike noted that accurate reflection of performance was the most important issue to consider when choosing a grading system. Based on the evidence collected, SIUE chose to retain the whole letter grading system for the time being.

ERQ36.3 March 2013

New Graduate Nurses' Perceived Definition of Critical Thinking During Their First Nursing Experience

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Critical thinking (CT) is a flourishing concept that has been developing throughout the fields of both nursing education and practice. In fact, every person thinks in his or her own way that is varied among individuals; it is the nature of human mankind to do so. Nevertheless, much of our thinking might be subjective, indefinite, limited, conventional or inclusively narrow-minded. CT is an essential expected competency of nurses at all levels of education and practice, and is a required component of nursing programs, including critical care nursing training programs (National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, 2006). Various authors have accentuated the need for nurses to be able to think critically in order to apply the proper theoretical knowledge in their clinical skills, using reasonable judgments in providing high standards of quality patient care. Yet, each author has defined CT in a different way. Luckowski (2003) reported that CT is basically the ability to analyze andappraise evaluations.

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The Impact of Institutional Factors on the Relationship Between High School Mathematics Curricula and College Mathematics Course-Taking and Achievement

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

Meta-analytic methods were used to examine the moderating effect of institutional factors on the relationship between high school mathematics curricula and college mathematics course-taking and achievement from a sample of 32 colleges. The findings suggest that the impact of curriculum on college mathematics outcomes is not generally moderated by institutional characteristics such as selectivity and educational profile, providing evidence that the relationships between curriculum and college mathematics outcomes generalize to a range of colleges. The results inform college policies and practices for advising students on mathematics course-taking including enrollment in developmental courses, and high school mathematics curriculum selection.

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The Role of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria Economic Development

Franklin Ohiole Ohiwerei Basil Ogomeziem Nwosu
Ambrose Alli University Ebonyi State University

The researchers tried to ascertain the role of vocational and technical education in the Nigeria economic development using historical survey in analyzing the views of various academic authors in an attempt to inform researchers' on current issues on the field. The research reveals that there was a defect in the curriculum of vocational and technical education programmes in Nigeria. The role of Vocational and Technical Education in the production of skilled manpower cannot be achieved if an efficient and effective teaching and examination is not maintained. No nation can develop without vocational and technical education. The solution to the economic development is total commitment to accepting vocational and technical education in Nigeria. Vocational and Technical Education graduates are not given proper training, therefore, are unable to be engaged in the area of maintenance of roads, pipe water, electricity, refineries, improving the food supplies etc. Conclusion and recommendations were made.

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Think Pair Share: A teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking

Mahmoud Kaddoura PhD.
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for patients. Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy that provides students with adequate time to think in order to increase their quality of responses. Students become actively involved in thinking about the concepts presented in their discussion. Ninety one students participated in this study. Forty six (50%) of the participants were included in the control group (Non-TPS) and 45 (50%) were included in the experimental group (TPS). The participants were sophomore-level generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in the same Health Assessment nursing course. The HESI critical thinking test was the tool used before (Pretest) and after (posttest) the course to collect data about student's CT skills. The study used a quasi experimental design. The independent sample t test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed a significant increase in CT over time, throughout the 17-week course, with the use of TPS teaching/learning strategy. The results suggest that TPS is an effective strategy to foster CT of nursing students and could be used by educators to foster learners' CT in their courses. The study has significant implications on education, nursing practice, and research.

ERQ36.2 December 2012

Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

Joohi Lee

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates responded to the survey by recalling their before and after student teaching experiences. A paired t-test was calculated to determine statistical mean differences before and after student teaching on five categories: a) pedagogical content knowledge, b) planning and preparation for instruction, c) classroom management, d) promoting family involvement, and e) professionalism. Mean differences of all of the paired items between pre-and post survey were shown to be statistically significant on all five categories.

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Multisite Studies and Scaling Up in Educational Research

Michael Harwell
University of Minnesota

A scale-up study in education typically expands the sample of students, schools, districts, and/or practices or materials used in smaller studies in ways that build in heterogeneity. Yet surprisingly little is known about the factors that promote successful scaling up efforts in education, in large part due to the absence of empirically supported theories of scaling up. A literature for scale-up studies in education is growing but is years away from providing research-supported practices in planning and conducting these studies. Following the suggestion of Schneider and McDonald (2006) to import relevant knowledge from other fields into the scale-up literature in education, this paper examines the multisite public health and nursing literature in search of a multidisciplinary knowledge base that can inform scaling up efforts in education. Five strategies and practices identified in these literatures as critical to scaling up success are described.

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The Nexus between the Above-Average Effect and Cooperative Learning in the Classroom

Jennifer E. Breneiser, David M. Monetti and Katharine S. Adams
Valdosta State University

The present study examines the above-average effect (Chambers & Windschitl, 2004; Moore & Small, 2007) in assessments of task performance. Participants completed self-estimates of performance and group estimates of performance, before and after completing a task. Participants completed a task individually and in groups. Groups were self-selected by participants, or randomly assigned by the researchers. Previous research examined the above-average effect in performance self-estimates for individuals, but little has been done examining the above-average effect in group performance. Results indicated robust above-average effects for both individual and group estimates of performance, and these effects were not limited by group type. Furthermore, above-average effects were observed for estimates of performance both before and after completion of the task, suggesting that participants were not more accurate in their post-task estimates. In addition to these data, results of a group-work survey administered to participants are disseminated, suggesting some practical applications for group work in the college classroom setting.

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Field Experience + Inclusive ECE Classrooms = Increased Preservice Teacher Efficacy in Working with Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

Julia T. Atiles and Jennifer L. Jones
Oklahoma State University
Hyunjin Kim
Sungkyunwan University

The current study examined whether field placements within an inclusive classroom are associated with improved preservice teacher's efficacy when working with children with developmental delays or disabilities. Study participants were 165 undergraduate students enrolled in primary teacher education classes at a Midwestern university. Participants responded to a modified version of the Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale. A significant positive correlation between preservice teachers' efficacy of working with children with developmental delays or disabilities and their inclusive field experiences was found. Findings in this study stress the need for undergraduate early childhood education programs to utilize diverse, highly inclusive classrooms in their students' field experiences; not only in the hopes of increasing efficacy, but to also develop the skills and dispositions valued by our profession.

ERQ36.1 September 2012

The Benefits of Latin?

Lisa R. Holliday

Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the sciences. In and of itself, the study of Latin seems to be a topic of concern primarily within Classics departments. However, given the broad claims that have been made about the benefits of Latin for educational development, it is useful to investigate the role of Latin within elementary and high school curriculums as it relates to learning: does the study of Latin improve cognitive abilities and English skills, including grammar and vocabulary?

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Investigating Social Desirability Bias in Student Self-Report Surveys

Angie L. Miller
Indiana University

The frequent use of student self-report surveys in higher education calls into question the possibility of social desirability having an unwanted influence on responses. This research explores the potential presence of social desirability bias with the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used assessment of student behaviors. Correlations between a short social desirability scale and NSSE benchmarks, subscales, and selected items suggest that the majority of scores have no significant relationship with a measure of social desirability. A series of regression models controlling for demographic variables produce similar results. Effect sizes and estimates of explained variance are also discussed. The researcher and the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) conducted a national study in 1989, asking school superintendents their opinions on the topic of collective bargaining: the role of the superintendent, the composition of the board

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Using AMLO to Improve the Quality of Teacher Education Outcomes

Zaid Al-Shammari
Gulf University for Science and Technology

This study aims to find ways to improve learning outcomes in teacher education courses by using an Analysis Model for Learning Outcomes (AMLO). It addresses the improvement of the quality of teacher education by analyzing learning outcomes and implementing curriculum modifications related to specific learning objectives and their effects on student learning and achievement. The learning outcome data of two groups of female students enrolled in an education course were analyzed for comparison. The results indicated significant improvements in learning outcomes for the second group after curriculum modifications were implemented. These results highlight the importance of analyzing learning outcomes for quality improvement in teacher education. This paper discusses some of the benefits of using AMLO in teacher education and other disciplines, and provides recommendations for faculty members, administrations, and researchers.

ERQ35.4 June 2012

Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

Mahmood Kaddorura MA Collette Williams
College of Pharmacy and Health Services Quincy Medical Center, Quincy MA

Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method. Through the use of a standardized CT (HESI) exam, taken at the beginning and the end of the course, scores were compared for improvement using paired t-tests and a one sample t test. The results demonstrated that the HESI CT test scores identified a statistically significant difference with a larger average score after the intervention of the integration of the case study teaching strategy as compared to the pre-intervention average. The findings have implications for educators to help students develop insight into the usefulness of case studies as a teaching learning method to foster students.

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The Role of the Superintendent And School Board in Collective Bargaining: 1989-2010

William L. Sharp
Ball State University

School superintendents have many roles, and being responsible for collective bargaining is one of those roles in states where collective bargaining is mandatory. This role has changed over the years, and it varies from school district to school district. And, as teacher associations and unions have increased in number and strength, superintendents and boards of education have had to devote more time to the process of negotiations. The researcher and the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) conducted a national study in 1989, asking school superintendents their opinions on the topic of collective bargaining: the role of the superintendent, the composition of the board

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English Language Learners' Educational Resilience and Classroom Learning Environment

Héctor Rivera Hersh C. Waxman Robert Powers
Southern Methodist University Texas A&M University Northern Colorado University

Resilience is an area of research that has important implications for the educational improvement of English Language Learners (ELLs) because it focuses on ELLs who are successful in school despite the presence of adverse conditions such as living in economically- and socially-disadvantaged circumstances. This study compared the classroom and instructional learning environment of 189 fourth- and fifth-grade resilient, average and nonresilient ELLs. Resilient and average students perceived significantly (p < .05) more competition in the classroom than nonresilient students, while nonresilient students and average students perceived their reading classes to be significantly (p < .05) more difficult than resilient students. The classroom observation results revealed that resilient and average students were on task significantly (p < .001) more than nonresilient students.

ERQ35.3 March 2012

The Impact of Post-Training on Job Performance in Nigera's Oil Industry

Stanley Aibieyi
University of Benin

The Nigeria's oil industry has been criticized for some time now for its inability to render adequate services to the general public. This criticism is predicated on the fact that the standards of productivity in their services are low and that their facilities (i.e. the refineries) are not working up to capacity. This is evident in their inability to produce at installed capacity and maintain the refineries, thereby leading to importation of fuel into the country for local consumption. For improved performance, the employees require administrative and technological training. Based on the observation, the study determined the types of training programme that existed in the Nigeria's Oil Industry, the instruments used for the identification of training and development needs and the factors that influenced selection of staff for training and development. The job performance of staff before and after training, the application of professional knowledge of trained staff and the competence of staff to cope with changes before and after training were also investigated. To achieve these objectives, data were collected with the aid of Nigeria's Oil Industry Training and Development Questionnaire (NOITDQ). A simple random sampling of 400 trained workers were selected from NNPC, Shell and Chevron. The data generated through the instruments were analyzed using percentages and the chi-square (x2) for testing the stated hypotheses. The result of the analysis shows that oil workers were offered training opportunities and that the most patronized type of training programmes were seminar, conference and workshop. Reports by supervisory staff was the most patronized instrument for identifying and selecting staff for training and development needs; nomination of staff for training was based mainly on low job performance. Professional training, educational qualification and vacancy position were major factors that influenced the deployment of staff after training and that political consideration was rarely used for staff deployment. Application of professional knowledge of staff varied significantly in positive terms with training, and there was a significant difference in competence of staff to cope with changes before and after training in favour of post training. It was concluded that training opportunities were offered to staff and that instruments for identification of training needs existed in the oil industry. There were also training and development; training and appropriate deployment had positive effect on job performance and its inherent tasks. Based on these conclusions, recommendations were made for policy options to ensure effective staff training and development. The recommendations include the following: that courses should be organized for staff through seminars, conferences and workshops in favour of technological change and that there should be flexibility in the selection of staff for training without necessarily adhering to seniority and so on.

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Taking a Closer Look at the Impact of Classroom Placement: Students Share Their Perspective from Inside Special Education Classrooms

Jennifer L. Jones Lisa R. Hensley
Oklahoma State University Wayne Township Schools

This study explores the impact of classroom placement on students' self-determination, perception of social support from teachers and classmates, and student-teacher relationships. Participants included 51 middle school and high school students receiving special education services under the ID (intellectual disabilities) category, along with 12 special education teachers. Student and teacher report were utilized in making comparisons between students in "self-contained" classrooms and "resource" classrooms. Results indicate less dependency and greater feelings of self-determination for students in resource rooms. Practical recommendations for improving student outcomes and relationships for students in self-contained classrooms are discussed.

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The Effects of Using Reading Racetracks for Teaching of Sight Words to Three Third-Grade Students with Learning Disorders

Gregory L McGrath T. F. McLaughlin K. Mark Derby
Gonzaga University
Wendy Bucknell
Central Valley School District

Those of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks with three 8-year-old students with learning disabilities. All three children were performing well below grade level in reading. A single subject reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing reading racetracks. Corrects responses and errors were recorded using high frequency "No Excuse" word lists used in the school district. All three students showed an increase in sight words learned when the reading racetracks were used. This was replicated each time the reading racetrack procedure was implemented. The applicability of using reading racetracks in the classroom is discussed.

ERQ35.2 December 2011

Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students

Carol S. Parke Dana Keener
Duquesne University

The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted mean scores on three large-scale achievement tests and adjusted average math grades were significantly higher for the cohort than the non-cohort. In terms of course-taking, larger percentages of cohort versus non-cohort students took advanced math courses in 11th and 12th grades. However, after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and SES, the impact of mobility on the type of math course taken was negligible. The study also examined math coursework over the four years of high school for cohort students. Differences were found across demographic subgroups with regard to the type of courses taken and cumulative math grade point average. Significant gaps were found between the two SES groups for both Black and White students in terms of the percentages of students taking advanced math courses.

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Transformations in HIV Awareness in Nigeria: an Empirical Investigation of Personality and Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Undergraduates

Olukayode Ayooluwa Afolabi Ayobami Adekunle Adesina
Ambrose Alli University

The study observed the influence of neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion and HIV awareness on risky sexual behaviour of Nigerian undergraduates. Two hundred (215) undergraduates in the Faculties of Engineering and Social sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, took part in the research. They consisted of 135 (62.7%) males and 80 females (37.3%). Out of the sample, 115 (53.4%) were from Social sciences while 100 (46.6%) were from Engineering. Three hypotheses were tested. From the results, it was found that there are main significant influences of neuroticism {F(1 211)= 38.55; p< .005} and agreeableness {F(1 211)= 12.89; p< .005} on risky sexual behaviour (RSB). The effect of interaction between neuroticism and agreeableness on RSB was not significant. Also, Engineering undergraduates were found to be engaged more in RSB than their counterparts in Social sciences (t= 2.08, df= 213; p< .05). Apart from these, it was also found that there was a joint influence of gender, religion, extraversion and HIV/AIDS awareness on RSB F(4, 215) = 18.71; p< .01). From here, gender (β= 0.12, p >.05) and religion (β=0.11, p >.05) did not have significant influence on risky sexual behaviour. However, the independent influences of extraversion (β= 0.38, p < .05) and HIV awareness (β= 0.41, p< .05) were significant. The results of the findings were explained and necessary recommendations made too.

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Early Parenting Practices and Outcomes for Adolescents

Amy Washington Mardis Dunham
Murray State University

This study compared early parenting practices and adolescent behavior to determine whether parental attachment-promoting behaviors in the first year of life were associated with psychosocial adjustment in teenagers. The mothers of 22 adolescents completed a behavioral assessment of their teenager and an inventory of their recollected parenting practices during the first year of that child's life. The adolescent participants, ranging in age from 12 to18 years (9 males and 13 females), also completed a self-report measure of psychosocial adjustment. The results indicated that early attachment-promoting parenting practices were associated with psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Attachment Parenting appears to offer a useful protocol for understanding and implementing best practices in early childrearing for parents. Implications for future research are discussed.

ERQ35.1 September 2011

After-School Elementary School Mathematics Club: Enhancing Achievement and Encouraging Future Teachers

Susan Catapano

Helene J. Sherman

University of Northern Carolina

University of Missouri

Large, urban school districts struggle with many educational factors. A university-school partnership developed an after-school mathematics program to address two issues challenging a local district, increasing the mathematics achievement scores on standardized tests and a variety of other assessments and maintaining a highly qualified teacher workforce. The national turnover rate for teachers is approximately 16% and that rate doubles in urban areas. Related to the turnover rate of teachers is the link researchers report between those changes and the academic success of children in urban schools. Efforts to encourage and retain a prepared, consistent and stable workforce and to building a strong academic foundation early in the K- 12 curriculum have been connected to stemming the escalating high school dropout rate in urban districts.

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Real Homework Tasks: A Pilot Study of Types, Values, and Resource Requirements

Mary Lee Danielson

Bruce Strom

Kathrine Kramer

Carroll University

As the standards and accountability movements have gained momentum and political favor in recent years, a renewed interest in instructional practices intended to promote greater success on standardized tests has been evidenced. One such instructional practice, homework, while certainly not a recent practice, receives both support and criticism and continues to generate passionate discussion among local school policy makers, teachers, and parents. Merits and concerns regarding the assignment of homework have garnered attention in mainstream publications in large part due to widespread public attention to readable sources, including Kohn's The Homework Myth and Bennett and Kalish's (2006) The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It. While arguments associated with homework have been presented and debated throughout the 20th century and have continued into the 21st century, the practice of assigning homework across all grade levels (K-12) continues to be widely accepted and generally expected by administrators, teachers, parents and students. In fact, the practice of assigning homework has come to be regarded as an indicator of high standards and a rigorous curriculum, and has taken on "symbolic value". While arguments for and against the practice of assigning homework persist, homework continues to be assigned on a regular, almost daily basis in most classrooms. Basic homework guidelines have been suggested by researchers and encouraged by school districts for teachers. The guidelines provide teachers with options for appropriate homework assignments based on research. More specific examples are given in the publication.

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Enabling Initiative and Enterprise: Faculty-led Course Redesign in a STEM Discipline

Jay R. Dee

Alan B. Henkin
Jennifer L. Hearne
University Massachusetts-Boston
University Iowa
University Maryland-Eastern Shore

This study focuses on processes and outcomes associated with a faculty grassroots initiative to reform teaching and learning in an introductory chemistry course at a research university. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, the study considers faculty groups and teams as sites and sources of pedagogical change in an effort to improve undergraduate teaching. Second, the study examines the interaction between institutional change initiatives and grassroots faculty reform efforts. Third, the study aims to develop understandings of how outcomes of technology-enhanced reform can serve to alleviate time constraints on science faculty and address problems of faculty role overload.

ERQ34.4 June 2011

Changing Pattern and Process of High School Dropouts between 1980s and 2000s

Suhyun Suh

Jingyo Suh

Auburn University

Tuskegee University

There has been a general decline in the dropout rate and an increase in the high school completion rate over the last three decades. This research investigates causes for the decline in the dropout rate over the periods using decomposition analysis. Traditional cross-section analysis was inadequate to perform this task. Using the two cohort surveys of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in the 1980s and 2000s, we separated changes in characteristics into two parts: explained change and unexplained change. Results of the research suggest that the common explanations for the characteristic of school dropout account for little of the decline of the rate. Relatively unnoticeable factors such as location and regions contributed to the decline of the dropout rate while socioeconomic, personal, familial factors contributed to increase the dropout rate.

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Improving the Quality of the Girl-Child Education in Nigeria

Amos O. Arowoshegbe

Enoma Anthony
Abrose Alli University, Nigeria

The National population commission of Nigeria estimated the population of Nigeria to be 121 million in the year 2001. Out of this population, women constitute 50 percent. Inspite of this massive size, the Annual Abstract of Statistics reveals that 9.6 million female pupils were registered for the primary school as against 11.9 million male pupils in the year 2004. In 2005 there were 9.9 million female as against 12.1 million males. At the post primary school level, there were 2. 7 million female as against 3.4 million male students in the year 2005. The impact of this discrepancy has left women Vulnerable to poverty, low-self esteem, early marriage and other social problems. It was based on these problems that this paper examined those factors militating against women education in Nigeria and suggested solution on how to solve them. In order to examine this problem, opinion survey involving 420 respondents sample from six departments of the faculty of social science Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma were conducted. The study revealed that parental attitude, Economic factors, social cultural factor among others are factors militating against the education of the girl-child in Nigeria. The paper therefore, recommended that mass media, traditional rulers and women-based institutions under the ministry of women affairs should map out programmes that will support the girl-child education in Nigeria.

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Employing Reading Racetracks and DI Flashcards With and Without Cover, Copy, and Compare and Rewards to Teach of Sight Words to Three Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading

Leah Kaufman

T. F. McLaughlin

K. Mark Derby

Gonzaga University
Theresa Waco         
          Spokane Public Schools

The purpose of this study was to study the effect of pairing reading racetracks and flashcards for the teaching of sight words. The first participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading and writing and was also diagnosed with ADHD. The second participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading, writing, math, and social skills.  The third participant was diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading, writing, and math. Data were taken on the number of corrects and errors for select sight words.  A combination multiple baseline with reversals and a generalization probe single case design was employed to evaluate the various interventions. The results for two of the participants indicated that reading racetracks paired with flashcards were quite effective in increasing oral reading of sight words.  For a third participant, the addition of cover, copy, and compare and rewards improved sight word acquisition. A brief generalization probe to new words indicated that the gains in sight words did not generalize to new untrained words.  The applicability of employing data-based decision making with our various interventions was outlined.

ERQ34.3 March 2011

When Best Intentions Go Awry: The Failures of Concrete Representations to Help Solve Probability Word Problems

Brian D. Beitzel

Richard K. Staley

Nelson F. DuBois

SUNY Oneonta, New York

Previous research has cast doubt on the efficacy of utilizing external representations as an aid to solving word problems.  The present study replicates previous findings that concrete representations hinder college students' ability to solve probability word problems, and extends those findings to apply to a multimedia instructional context.  Our concrete-representation group was instructed in how to use Venn diagrams to solve probability problems involving non-mutually exclusive events; our procedural group was instructed only in the formulation of equations.  Results showed that the procedural group outperformed the concrete-representation group; additionally, there was a main effect for performance on transfer problems, favoring near-transfer problems over far-transfer problems.  Contrary to previous findings, however, in the present study cognitive load did not appear to be a factor in the lower performance of the concrete-representation condition.

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Measuring Practices of Teaching for Social Justice in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

Emilie Mitescu Reagan -- Boston College
Joseph J. Pedulla -- Boston College
Cindy Jong -- Virginia Commonwealth U
Mac Cannady -- Boston College
Marilyn Cochran-Smith-- Boston College

This study used the Teaching for Social Justice Observation Scale (TSJOS) of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol-Plus (RTOP+) to examine the extent to which twenty-two novice elementary teachers implemented practices related to teaching for social justice in their mathematics instruction. In addition, this study sought to examine the extent to which practices related to teaching for social justice were related to pupil learning outcomes, as measured by end-of-unit district-based assessments. We found that, on average, the participants in this study implemented a moderate amount of teaching practices related to teaching for social justice. Furthermore, after correlating the teaching practices with pupil outcomes, we found a significant, positive relationship between teaching for social justice and pupil outcomes (r = 0.44, p<0.05).  We discuss implications of these findings and recommend further use of the TSJOS.

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Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context

J.M. Steur, E.P.W.A. Jansen
W.H.A. Hofman
University Centre for Learning & Teaching, University of Groningen

This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness -- reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning -- are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were administered to students from the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Usability within a research university is determined. The Reflective Thinking Questionnaire and the Task and Win Orientation in Sports Questionnaire were found to be usable but there were problems associated with the Visions of Morality Scale when used in this context. The Research Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and subscales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire require minor adjustments when used within a research university.

ERQ34.2 December 2010

Tracking: Educational Differentiation or Defective Strategy

George Ansalone
St Johnâ's University

For almost a century, schools have assigned students to various groups or classes based on their perceived academic ability. Referred to as Tracking, in the United States, and Streaming, in England, this organizational differentiation very often results in unequal access to knowledge and the differential treatment of students.  Proponents of tracking contend that it facilitates instruction and promotes the learning of all students.  They suggest that it enables teachers to adjust the content and quantity of the curriculum to the various ability levels of their students.  Notwithstanding the research which underscores the negative impact of tracking on student outcomes, this practice remains pervasive in schools and a number of assumptions support its popularity. This article examines these assumptions in light of existing English and American research to determine, once and for all, if tracking is a positive form of educational differentiation or a defective strategy.

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Trait Validity and Reliability of TAAS Reading Scores: 1994-1999

Jon Lorence
University of Houston

The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test was the major source of data for the Texas educational accountability system from 1994 through 2002. Contrary to critics who claim that TAAS data are invalid and unreliable measures of student performance, structural equation analyses of TAAS reading data based on the 1994 Texas third grade cohort followed through eighth grade indicate that TAAS reading data meet conventional standards of trait validity and reliability. Rather than assume reading performance follows a quasi-simplex models, i.e., test scores in one year largely account for test results in the following year, an alternative conceptualization views each of the annual TAAS reading tests as one indicator of a fairly stable trait of general reading ability. A second-order factor of reading achievement provides a more reasonable fit to the data than a quasi-simplex model. Both quasi-simplex and second-order factor models indicate TAAS reading scores were highly stable from one grade to the next.

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An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

Taik Kim
Ohio State University, Marion

The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in mathematics. To maximize the efficiency of classroom teaching, MEG, a pull-out program, was created to serve students with disorderly behavior but with a strong potential to improve their mathematics skills.
      The pull-out program positively affected other students' achievement in the classroom, too. Overall proficiency level from the Ohio Achievement Test improved from 5.6 % of the previous year to 8.1%, while the district proficiency level decreased from 46.3 % to 38.7 %. The outcome of this research shows that MEG was effective for improving standardized test scores and study habits for the participants. Simultaneously, the setting appeared helpful in correcting students' classroom behavior.

ERQ 34.1 September 2010

"Minimization as an Alternative to Unrestricted Randomization in Educational Research"

Hui-Fang Chen
Missouri State University
Kathy E. Green
University of Denver

This paper describes an alternative to unrestricted randomization in experimental design, termed minimization, which can be used to achieve better balance of critical factors in small to medium-sized experimental studies. Several critical factors are controlled which are known to influence outcomes but which are not the foci of the study. Based on the critical factor values of previously entered participants, a new participant will be allocated into an experimental group to minimize imbalance across groups on critical factors. Minimization has been primarily employed in medical interventions and clinical trials. This article provides examples of the potential use of minimization in education, its advantages, and limitations. Minimization is one possible strategy to attain stronger validity in small to medium-sized experimental studies.

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"Staffing at the Middle School Level: Are the Least Qualified Principals Assigned to the Neediest School Buildings?"

Phillip Young
University of California-Davis
Donald Paul Reimer
Community Youth Ministries, Reedley California
Karen Holsey Young
Fort Miller Middle School Fresno Unified School District

A structural equation modeling approach is used to assess the relationships among human capital endowments of school principals and characteristics of students at the middle school level. Human capital endowments are measured according to education, teacher experience, and administrator experience, while characteristics of students are assessed according to diversity, English language learners, and poverty. Results indicate that high risk students are equally served but not better served. That is, the most qualified principals are not assigned to the neediest school buildings. Consequently, school districts are failing to capitalize on staffing opportunities for principals.

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Classroom Management Competencies of Intern-Teachers in Nigera's Secondary Schools"

Peter Onotevure Ikoya
Delta State Univeristy, Nigeria
Samuel I. Akinseinde
Delta State University, Nigeria

The purpose of the study was to find out the adequacy of the current classroom management training program for intern teachers in Nigerian Universities. Two hundred and six respondents were used for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to seventy males and one hundred and thirty-six females drawn from Arts, Science, Technical and Social Science programmes. Data were analyzed using frequency, mean scores and analysis of variance. Major findings revealed no significant difference in classroom management competencies of male and female interns as regards leadership and discipline but there is significant gender difference in communication competencies. There is variability in classroom management competencies of intern teachers from Arts, Science, Social Science and Technical Education programmes. The intern teachers see classroom discipline as a major problem confronting them.

ERQ 33.4 June 2010

"The Relation Between Time Management Skills and Academic Achievement of Potential Teachers"

Necati Cemaloglu
Sevil Filiz
Gazi University

The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The Time Management Questionnaire was used in the research. The results of the research were analysed by using arithmetical mean, standard deviation, simple correlation, and regression analysis techniques. As a result of the research it was determined that student behaviour in the category of time planning was at the highest level and behaviour in the category of time consumers was at the lowest level. The success of the students was above average. There was a significant and positive relation between time planning and time consumers and the academic achievement of the students; there was a low and positive relation between time consumers and academic achievement; there was a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic achievement. The relative importance order of the predictor variables on academic achievement, according to the standardized regression coefficient, was time consumers, time planning, and time attitude; each of the three variables had an important predictor effect on the academic achievement of the students.

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A Validation Study of an Instrument Designed To Measure Types of Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach"

John Rugutt
Caroline C. Chemosit
Illinois State University

This study reports the results of a validation study of student assessment of types of learning (ToL) scale, a measure of teaching effectiveness based on student summative judgments. The study investigated the factor structure of ToL and how consistent the factor structure held across multiple groups. This study used measures developed by Ellett, Loup, Culross, McMullen and Rugutt, 1997 and data from two independent administrations, involving 1096 and 1536 students from two semesters respectively. The results showed that the overall instrument possesses good internal consistency and adequate construct validity across the two samples. The SEM analyses with LISREL (Jreskog & Srbom, 1996) methodology revealed that ToL consists of 2 latent variables that are stable over time and consistent over different groups.

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Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement"

Terri Phelps
Christian County Schools
Mardis Dunham
Murray State University
Robert Lyons
Murray State University

The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program. The program was used in hopes to improve each student's ability in reading fluency. The study used Read Naturally® as an intervention for two struggling readers identified as two third grade students. The program included passage reading and comprehension. The participants were placed in the correct instructional level within the program by determining their age, grade level, reading abilities, and instructional level. The Read Naturally® program followed a multi-step procedure that required the students to read for a minute for a cold read and hot read, read passages aloud, follow along as the passages are read through an audiotape, and answer comprehension questions pertaining to the passages. Data were collected throughout the study to determine if there was an increase in words per minute for each participant from a cold read to a hot read.. The effectiveness of the Read Naturally® program was examined through an ABAB single-subject reversal design. The overall outcomes indicated improved fluency for each student. This improvement from hot to cold reads during the intervention was not found for either participant. Therefore, caution is urged regarding the use of Read Naturally®.